“What the heck is DPI?”

Printing is a very technical and complex process. Although we make it look easy, it sometimes takes alot of know-how to get your job to look perfect. That's why we're providing you with this handy glossary of the terms that we use for your reference.

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A4 - ISO paper size 210 mm x 297 mm used for letterhead.

Access - A noun indicating the ability to log on to the Internet or another network.

Accordian Fold - A bindery term for two or more parallel folds that open like an accordion. Brochures and maps often use accordion folds.

Achromatic - Having no color or hue.

Actinic Light - Light that exposes a coating or emulsion.

Additive Color Theory - The mixture of red, green and blue light, the primary colors of light, to produce white light.

Adhesive Binding - Applying a glue or another, usually hot-melt, substance along the backbone edges of assembled, printed sheets; the book or magazine cover is applied directly on top of the tacky adhesive.

Against the Grain - At right angles to the direction of the grain of the paper.

Airbrush - A function of a color imaging system to add or remove printing ink of any value in a designated picture area.

Aliasing - A "staircase" or jagged effect that occurs when display resolution is too coarse to minimize the broken or crooked appearance of certain electronic design elements. Aliasing is more visually pronounced in diagonal lines, curves and circles.

Alkaline Paper - A stable, acid-free paper used for products that must resist deterioration and preserve their images for as long as possible. Archival photographs, high-quality books, and fine art prints are made on alkaline paper.

Alteration - Any change made by the customer after copy or artwork has been given to the service bureau, separator or printer. The change could be in copy, specifications, or both. Also called AA, author alteration or customer alteration.

Amberlith - The orange or red acetate material that artists cut into elements or shapes to put on areas of keylines indicating where halftones, tints, etc., are to be positioned. Also called rubylith.

Analog - Of a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input. Not binary.

Analog Workflow - Traditional workflow that relies heavily on film and photosensitive materials and processes.

Anilox - This inking system is commonly used in flexographic presses. An elastomer-covered fountain roller runs in the ink pan and is adjustable against a contacting, engraved metering roll. Ink is flooded into the engraved cells of the metering roll, excess is doctored off by the wiping or squeezing action of the fountain roll or a doctor blade, and that which remains beneath the surface of the metering roll is transferred to the printing plates.

Anti-offset Powder - Finely powdered starch sprayed on the printed surface of coated paper as sheets leave the press to prevent wet ink from transferring from the top of one sheet to the bottom of the next sheet.

Application Files - The files that contain the data created by software programs; also called data files.

Aqueous Coating - Water-based coating applied like ink by a printing press to protect and enhance the printed surface.

Artwork - All original copy, including type, photos and illustrations intended for printing. Also called art.

Ascender - The part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body, as in "b" or "d".

ASCII - Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange, the international standard codes that are used by most computers to symbolize letters, numbers, punctuation and certain special commands.

Automatic Picture Replacement (APR) - Scitex's implementation of the process in which a low resolution image is automatically replaced by the high resolution version of the image.

Automatic Plate Changing - Presses equipped with automatic plate changing capability.

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Back Up - In printing, to print the second side of a sheet already printed on one side. In computers, to make a copy of your work on a separate disk in case something happens to the original.

Bandwidth - The capacity of a network to carry data, usually expressed in bits per second (bps).

Baseline - An imaginary line that letters and numbers sit on.

Basic Size - 25" x 38" for book papers, 20" x 26" for cover papers, 22" x 28" or 22" x 35" for bristols, 25" x 30" for index.

Basis Weight - Weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that grade; example: 500 sheets of 17" x 22" 20 lb. bond paper weighs 20 pounds. In countries using ISO paper sizes the weight, in grams, of one square meter of paper.

Baud - A speed of data transmission, pronounced "bod." Today, modems measured in baud are relics.

Bearers - The flat surfaces or rings at the ends of press cylinders that come in contact with each other during printing and serve as a basis for determining packing thickness.

Binary - A number representation consisting of zeros and ones used by practically all computers because of its ease of implementation using digital electronics. A file encoding with representation of text and graphics.

Binder’s Creep - The slight but cumulative extension of the edges of each inserted spread or signature beyond the edges of the one that encloses it in a saddle-stitch bind.

Binding - The fastening of the assembled sheets or signatures along one edge of a publication.

Bit - Binary Digit. The smallest unit of information in a computer, a 1 or 0. It can define two conditions; on or off.

Bitmap - An image represented by an array of picture elements, each of which is encoded as a single binary digit.

Blanket - In offset printing, a rubber-surfaced fabric that is clamped around a cylinder. The image is transferred from the plate to the blanket and from there transferred to the paper.

Blanket Cylinder - The cylinder that carries the offset rubber blanket, placing it in contact with the inked image on the plate cylinder and then transferring the inked image to the paper carried by the impression cylinder.

Bleed - Printed image which extends beyond the trim edge of the sheet or page.

Blind Image - Image that is debossed, embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.

Blind Folio - Page numbers are not printed on the page.

Blocking - Sticking together of printed sheets causing damage when the surfaces are separated.

Blueline - Prepress photographic proof made from stripped negatives where all colors show as shades of a single color on white paper. Also called brownline, silverprint, Dylux®.

Bond Paper - A grade of writing or printing paper where strength, durability and performance are essential requirements; used for letterheads, business forms, etc. The basic size is 17" x 22" .

Book Paper - A general term for coated and uncoated paper. The basic size is 25" x 38" .

Boolean - Based on the case-sensitive operators AND, OR, and NOT - serves as the basis of machine intelligence and, hence, computer searches.

Bottling - The process of skewing pages to compensate for paper thickness as it is folded. Primarily used on signatures designed for large web or large sheetfed presses.

Break for Color - In artwork and composition, to separate the parts to be printed in different colors.

Brick-and-mortar - Located or serving consumers in a physical facility as distinct from providing remote, especially online, services.

Brightness - In paper, the reflectance or brilliance of the paper.

Bristol - Type of board paper used for post cards, business cards and other heavy-use products.

Bronzing - Printing with a sizing ink and then applying bronze powder while still wet to produce a metallic luster.

Buckle Folder - A bindery machine in which two rollers push the sheet between two metal plates, stopping it and causing it to buckle at the entrance to the folder. A third roller working with one of the original rollers uses the buckle to fold the paper.

Bump - Ink applied from a fifth or higher plate in four-color process printing, usually to strengthen a specific color; also referred to as a touchplate.

Burn - Exposure of a plate to light through a negative to create an image for printing.

Burnish - The term used to describe the rubbing down and securing of copy to a keyline.

Burnthrough - Condition existing when enough light penetrates a masking sheet to expose the film or plate beneath the sheet. Masking sheeting should prevent light from penetrating to the film, but accumulated exposures—as in step-and-repeat exposures—sometimes sensitize the film, causing burnthrough.

Butt Register - Register where ink colors meet precisely without overlapping or allowing space between. Also called butt fit and kiss register.

Byte - A measurement unit equal to 8 bits of digital information. The standard measurement unit of file size. See also kilobyte, megabyte, and gigabyte.

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C1S - A trade abbreviation for coated 1 (one) side. Card stock used for post cards and fliers or cast-coated sheets often used for covers are coated on one side only.

Calender - To make the surface of paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.

Calibration - A process by which a scanner, monitor or output device is adjusted to provide a more accurate display and reproduction of images.

Caliper - The thickness of paper, usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils). Also, a device on a sheetfed press that detects double sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing signatures or inserts.

Camera-Ready - Copy and all other printing elements are ready for photography.

Card Stock - Also called cover stock. A stiff paper often used for post cards, catalog covers and other items that require rigidity. Card stock is usually described by point sizes that give the thickness of the sheet in thousandths of inches. For example, 10-pt card is 0.010 inch thick. Card stock can also be described by pound weights based on the weight of 500 sheets measuring 20 inches by 26 inches each.

Case Bind - To bind using glue to hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth edition, hard bind or hard cover.

Cast Coated Paper - Paper dried under pressure against a heated, polished cylinder to produce a high-gloss enamel finish.

CD-ROM - Compact disk–read only memory. A laser encoded optical storage disk that can store 650 megabytes to over 1 gigabyte.

Centimeter - Metric measurement of length. 2.54 centimeters = 1 inch.

CEPS - Color Electronic Prepress System.

Chalking - Refers to improper drying of ink. Pigments dust off because ink has been absorbed too rapidly into the paper.

Chill Rolls - On a web offset press, the section located after the drying oven where heatset inks are cooled below their setting temperature.

Choke - A slight size reduction of an opening into which an image will print.

Chopper Fold - Conveying a signature from the first parallel fold in a horizontal plane, spine forward, until it passes under a reciprocating blade that forces it down between folding rollers to complete the fold.

Chroma - The attribute of color that specifies its amount of saturation or strength.

Chrome - A slang term meaning the color transparency used as the original copy.

CIE - International Commission on Illumination. A standards institute most well known in the graphic arts for its work in color space definition.

Cloning - A function on a CEPS used to duplicate a pixel or many pixels in another area of a picture. It can be used to add or remove detail. Some manufacturers call this function " pixel swopping."

CMS - Color Management System. This ensures color uniformity across input and output devices so that final printed results match originals. The characteristics or profiles of devices are normally established by reference to standard color targets.

CMYK - Abbreviation for cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black), the four process colors.

Coated Paper - Paper with a coating of clay or other substances that improves reflectivity and ink holdout.

Coating - An unbroken, clear film applied to a substrate in layers to protect and seal it, or to make it glossy.

Collate - In binding, the gathering of sheets or signatures.

Color Balance - Maintaining the ratio of cyan, magenta and yellow ink to produce a picture with the desired color and without an unwanted color cast or color bias.

Color Bars - The color strip on proofs that is used as a guide for the printer in determining the amount and density of ink needed.

Color Cast - Discoloration of an entire image or portion of an image caused by an overabundance of one color.

Color Correction - The deliberate adjustment of one or more colors to achieve a desired result. With inks, process colors are not pure colors; each is contaminated with the other two colors and has a hue error that requires compensation in the separation images.

Color Electronic Prepress Systems (desktop) - Computer systems using microcomputers and software for high-quality color manipulation and preparation.

Color Electronic Prepress Systems (high-end) - Dedicated computer work stations and systems designed exclusively for highest-quality color manipulation and preparation.

Color Fidelity - How well a printed piece matches the original.

Color Gamut - The range of colors that can be formed by all combinations of a given set of light sources or colorants of a color reproduction system. The normal human eye can perceive a wide gamut of colors – colors within the full range of the visible spectrum, including detail in very bright light and deep shadows. Transparencies and monitors, which display color using transmitted light, can hold some of that color range, or gamut. Because of such limitations as reflected light, ink impurities and paper absorption, a conventionally printed image is limited to a much smaller range of colors. Much of the work done in color correction arises from the tonal compression of the color gamut that occurs during the color separation phase.

Color Key™ - 3M’s negative overlay proofing films which visually simulate process printing inks.

Color Management Systems - Electronic characterization, calibration and control systems that help to assure color consistency and accuracy throughout the print production process from scanning through previewing on screen and proofing to reproduction on press.

Color Proof - A visual impression of the expected final reproduction produced on a substrate with inks, pigments or dyes. 3M Match Print™, DuPont Cromacheck® and Kodak Double Check® are examples of color proofing systems.

Color Reference - A set of process inks printed on standard paper and used for color control.

Color Scanner - An electronic piece of equipment that utilizes a laser or other high intensity light to make color separation negatives from either reflective prints or transparencies.

Color Separations - The four-color negatives or positives which are the result of changing full color photos or art into the four process colors (yellow, magenta, cyan and black) by the use of filters.

Color Sequence - The order in which the four-color process inks are printed on the plate.

Color Specification System - Charts or swatches of preprinted color patches of blended inks, each with a corresponding number, used to allow designers, printers and customers to communicate color with more accuracy.

Colorimeter - An instrument for measuring color the way the eye sees it.

Comb Bind - To bind by inserting the teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched along the edge of a stack of paper.

Combination Folder - A bindery machine or in-line finishing component of a web press that incorporates the characteristic of knife and buckle folders.

Composite Art - Mechanical on which copy for reproduction in all colors appears on only one surface, not separated into overlays. A tissue overlay is used to indicate color breaks.

Composite File - A PostScript file that represents color pages containing picture elements specified in terms of RGB (red, green and blue) color space as opposed to black and white " gray level" pages which represent separations.

Composite Proofs - Single test sheet showing position and color of all elements as stripped up.

Comprehensive - A detailed dummy or sketch of a design, intended to give a clear sense of how the finished piece should look.

Compression - The reduction in memory of an image file. See also lossy and non-lossy.

Computer-to-plate (C2P) - Describes a system in which the use of desktop publishing software, electronic prepress workstations and platesetters allows the imaging of metal plates for any format of press without the use of film, stripping or traditional platemaking. This process results in lower costs while shortening the amount of time needed to get a job on the press. Also called C2P to distinguish it from CTP (computer-to-press).

Computer-to-plate (metal) - Producing metal plates directly from digital files without producing a set of film negatives.

Computer-to-plate (polyester) - Producing polyester plates directly from digital files without producing a set of film negatives.

Computer-to-press (CTP) - Describes a printing system that includes desktop publishing software, electronic prepress workstations and a new type of press which is capable of rapidly changing the images it is printing without the use of removable plates. Sometimes called CTP, to distinguish it from C2P, or computer-to-plate.

Concept Creation - Selecting images and generating and approving ideas from thumbnails and rough layouts during the graphic design process.

Condensed Type - Type whose width has been reduced without affecting its height.

Condition - To keep paper in the pressroom for a few hours or days before printing so that its moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom.

Contact Print - A photographic print made from a negative or positive in contact with a sensitized paper, film or printing plate.

Content Proof - A proof that shows the customer the correct text and position of image elements but does not necessarily show accurate color reproduction.

Continuous Tones - Commonly identified as the film for the four colors of a separation before it is broken into dots.

Continuous-Tone Digital Proofing - Producing a proof with reliable color but no halftone pattern (photorealistic) directly from a digital file, usually by inkjet or dye sublimination process, without producing a set of film negatives.

Contract Proof - A proof, usually in color, that, when approved by the print buyer, constitutes a contractual obligation with the printer to purchase the printed materials that match the proof.

Contrast - The amount of difference between the lightest and the darkest areas in a photo or artwork.

Conventional Dot - A halftone dot with the classic square format: middle tone dots are square, while the extremely small black dots or white openings are round.

Cookie - A collection of information, usually including a username and the current date and time, stored on the local computer of a person using the World Wide Web, used chiefly by Web sites to identify users who have previously registered or visited the site.

Copy - Original job material (paste-ups, film, photos and other graphics) furnished for the print job.

Coverage - The amount of ink on a page or sheet, usually given in percentages.

Crash - Coarse cloth embedded in the glue along the spine of a book to increase strength of binding.

Creep - The shifting position of the page in a saddle-stitched bind. Creep moves the inside pages or signatures away from the spine.

CREF - Computer-ready electronic files.

Cromacheck® - DuPont’s negative overlay color proof.

Cromalin® - DuPont’s one piece proofing system in both positive and negative forms.

Crop - To eliminate portions of copy or a photograph.

Crop Marks - Symbols placed in the margin outside the image area that indicate to the printer and bindery the area to be printed and/or trimmed from the image.

Cross Direction - In paper, the direction across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive to humidity in its cross direction.

Crossover - A reproduction that extends across two facing pages in a book or magazine and crosses over the binding.

CT - Acronym for Continuous Tone. An image or photo, usually scanned or input from a digital camera.

CTP - Computer-to-press.

Cure - To dry inks, varnishes or other coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and prevent set-off.

Curl - The distortion of paper due to differences in structure or coatings from one side to the other or from absorption of moisture on the press.

Cutoff - Circumference of the impression cylinder of a web press, therefore, the length of the printed sheet on roll to sheet presses or the length of the repeat pattern on roll to roll presses.

Cyan - One of the three subtractive primary colors used in process printing. It is commonly known as " process blue."

Cylinder - Part of a system of large rollers on an offset lithography press. The plate cylinder transfers an image onto the blanket cylinder, which is then offset onto a press sheet passing between the blanket and impression cylinders.

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Dampening - Moistening non-image areas of lithographic plates with water-covered rollers.

Dampening System - The mechanism on a press for transferring fountain solution to the plate.

Data Shift - In process color printing, it describes a shift in one of the channels of data that comprise the image file and could cause inconsistent color in some areas in the image.

DCS - Desktop Color Separation. A set of four color-separated EPS images, with a fifth file that coordinates the four and provides a preview for placement.

Deboss - To press an image into paper so it lies below the surface.

Deckel Edge - The untrimmed feathery edges of paper formed where the pulp flows against the wire of a paper making machine.

Delivery - (1) The section of a printing press that receives, jogs and stacks the printed sheet. (2) The output end of bindery equipment.

Densitometer - Instrument used to measure density. Reflection densitometers measure light reflected from paper and other surfaces. Transmission densitometers measure light transmitted through film and other materials.

Density - The amount an object absorbs or reflects light is called " density level." High-density objects absorb or stop light; low-density objects reflect or transmit light.

Descender - The part of a lower case letter which extends below the main body, as in " p" .

Desensitizer - Chemical agent used to make non-image areas of a printing plate repellent to ink.

Desktop Black and White Scanners - Used to make black and white negatives or positives of images or line art.

Desktop Publishing - The creation of fully composed pages with all text and graphics in place on a system that includes a personal computer with a color monitor; word processing, page layout, illustration and other off-the-shelf software; digitized type fonts; a laser printer; and other peripherals, such as an optical image scanner. Completely paginated films are output from an imagesetter.

Desktop Publishing Stripping - Electronic assembly of all elements in final imposition for direct output as composite negative or plate.

Detail Enhancement - The technique of exaggerating picture image edges with unsharp masking or peaking, so the observer can easily see the detail of the original in the final reproduction.

Die - Device for cutting, scoring, stamping, embossing or debossing.

Diecutting - Using sharp steel rules to cut special shapes from printed sheets. Diecutting can be done on either flatbed or rotary presses.

Die Stamping - Printing from lettering or other designs engraved into copper or steel. Also called the intaglio process, it is used for the production of letterheads, business cards, etc.

Digital Asset Management - File or asset storage and retrieval by a company for its customer.

Digital Camera - A photographic system that transforms visual information into pixels that are assigned binary codes so that they can be manipulated, compressed and stored or transmitted as electronic files.

Digital Photography - Direct electronic capture of an image within a camera without using film and processing.

Digital Plates - High speed or spark discharge plates that can be exposed by digital data from a prepress system.

Digital Printing - Printing by plateless imaging systems that are imaged by digital data from prepress systems.

Digital Soft Proof - A color video monitor display of a picture file, data file or text file.

Digital Workflow - Workflow that relies on electronic processes that eliminate the need for traditional film materials.

Digitized Information - Text, photographs and illustrations converted into digital signals for input, processing and output in an electronic publishing system.

Dimensional Stability - Ability of a film to hold size throughout its cycle of use. Polyester-based films are more dimensionally stable than acetate bases; glass is more stable than polyester.

Direct Digital Color Proof (DDCP) - A proof made directly from the stored data file onto a substrate using a peripheral device such as a photographic exposure, dot matrix printer or ink jet printer without producing intermediate films.

Direct Screen - The method of color separating which adds dots at the same time the transparency is being photographically separated into the four colors.

Direct-to-plate - Often used as a synonym for computer-to-plate but less desirable to use because the acronym DTP can be confused with desktop publishing, which is also known as DTP (see computer-to-plate).

Direct-to-press Imaging - Unimaged plates are automatically mounted on the plate cylinder and then imaged with laser beams from digital data.

Display Font - A font designed for computer screen display as opposed to use with a printer. A few years ago most applications required two font sets, one for screen display and one for the printer. Today, this process is mostly transparent to the user since printers and displays support the same font set, or the application makes the conversion from screen to printer font automatically.

Dither - To fill the gap between two pixels with another pixel having an average value of the two to minimize the difference or add detail to smooth the result.

DMax - The point of maximum density in an image or original.

DMin - The point of minimum density in an image or original.

Dot - The individual element of a halftone.

Dot Area - The size of the dot is indicated by the percentage of the area it occupies from zero to one hundred percent.

Dot Etching - Applying chemicals by hand to either negatives for increasing dot size which adds color; or, to positives for decreasing dot size which subtracts color.

Dot Gain - The increase in the printing dot size from the halftone film to the printed substrate resulting in darker tones.

Dots Per Inch (DPI) - Measurement of the resolution of output devices such as monitors, laser printers, and imagesetters. The more dots the device is able to print to the inch, the better it is able to faithfully reproduce the desired text or image.

Double Black Duotones - Image created from two halftones, one for highlights and the other for midtones and shadows. Both plates are inked with black for the most contrast.

Double Burn - Utilizing two or more negatives to expose an image on a plate or positive print.

Down-Sampling - The reduction in resolution of an image, necessitating a loss in detail.

Drawdown - Sample of inks specified for a job applied to the substrate specified for a job.

Drier - A substance added to ink to hasten drying.

Drop Cap - A paragraph format where the first character of the first word is 3x the height of the body copy.

Drop Out - The technique that can give a mediocre photo greater contrast by photographically removing some dots to create highlights that show the actual white of the paper.

Drum - The common name for the photoconductive cylinders used on scanners and plotters.

Drum Scanner - Color separation equipment on which the original transparency is wrapped around a hollow, plastic rotary cylinder.

Dryer - A unit on a web press that hardens the heatset ink by evaporating the solvent ingredient in it.

Dummy - A layout showing the size, shape, form and general style of a piece of printing.

Duotone - Two films are made by changing the screen angle for each and one plate is made for each film. A duotone is printed in two colors but both plates can be used for the same color ink for maximum contrast. When using black ink this is called a " double black."

Duplex Paper - Paper with a different color or finish on each side.

Dye-sublimation Printer - A printer technology that produces high-quality color images through a heat-transfer process.

Dylux® - DuPont’s light-sensitive proof in blue or black.

Dynamically-generated Pages - Web pages, birthed at the time they are downloaded, often contain up-to-the-second data pulled into a template. Search engine results pages are dynamically generated.

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Easter Egg - A small cartoon, animation, or other feature hidden by a programmer in the code of a game or application and triggered by an arcane sequence of keystrokes or mouse clicks.

Electronic Dot Generation - Method of producing halftones electronically on scanners and prepress systems.

Electronic Printing, Black or Spot Color - Technology that reproduces pages in black or black plus spot (highlight) colors directly from a computer file without negatives, plates, etc., typically using electrostatic or electrophotographic processes.

Electronic Printing, Full-color - Technology that reproduces pages in process colors directly from a computer file without negatives, plates, etc., typically using electrostatic or electrophotographic processes.

Electronic Publishing - A configuration of hardware and software used for digital page composition. The term includes desktop publishing and high-end systems.

Electrophotography - Image transfer system used in copiers to produce images using electrostatic forces.

Elliptical Dot - An elongated or oval halftone dot used to minimize the midtone jump in dot gain at the point where dots are large enough to connect.

Em - A measure of space exactly as high and wide as the point size of the typeface being used.

Em Dash - A dash, one em long, used to separate parenthetical phrases within a sentence.

Emboss - To press an image into paper so it lies above the surface.

Emoticons - A series of keyed characters used especially in e-mail to indicate an emotion, such as pleasure [:-)] or sadness [:-(].

Emulsion - The light-sensitive coating on photographic film, plates or stencils.

En - A measure of space equal to one-half of an em space in the same point size and typeface.

En Dash - A dash, one en long, used to indicate range as in " see pages 4–5."

Enamel - A term applied to a coated paper or to a coating material on a paper.

Encryption - To alter (a file, for example) using a secret code so as to be unintelligible to unauthorized parties.

End Sheet - Sheet that attaches the inside pages of a case bound book to its cover.

Engraved Cylinder - An image carrier with recessed image areas that are filled with ink, which is then transferred to the substrate. Engraved, or intaglio, cylinders are often used in the gravure process.

Engraving - Printing method using a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its surface.

Enhanced Multi-color (" High-fidelity" ) Printing - Full-color printing using six, seven or more " process" colors instead of the traditional four.

EPS - Encapsulated PostScript File. A file format used to transfer PostScript image information from one program to another.

Estimate - A statement of what a print job will probably cost based on specified quantities, materials and labor.

Estimating - The process of determining approximate cost, specifying required quality and quantity, and projecting waste.

Environmentally-friendly Processes - Reduced-chemical, silver-and VOC-free processes for preparation of printed materials.

Etch - To use chemicals to carve an image into plates and film or an acid solution used to desensitize the non-printing areas of the plate.

Ethernet - A type of networking technology for local area networks; originally developed by Xerox Corporation; coaxial cable carries radio frequency signals between computers at a rate of 10 megabits per second.

Exposure - The quantity of light that is allowed to act on a photographic material. The product of the intensity and the duration of the light acting on the emulsions.

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Face - Edge of a bound publication opposite the spine.

Fake Duotone - A two color image consisting of one channel printing a halftone image, while a flat tint overprints in the second color.

Fanout - Distortion of paper on the press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly across the grain.

FAQ - Frequently-asked-questions.

Feeder - The part of the press that separates the sheets of paper and feeds them into position for printing.

Felt Side - The smoother side of the paper.

Fifth Color - Non-process or premixed ink color used in addition to the four process colors.

File Format - A set of instructions that describe how to store, access or transmit digital information. Being able to match the format of data created in one program to what can be received by another is the basis for file compatibility.

File Server - A networked computer system used to store common files in such a way that all or only designated users and applications can access them.

Filler - Inorganic materials like clay, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, and other white pigments added to the papermaking finish to improve opacity, brightness, and the overall printing surface.

Fill-up - Occurs when ink fills the area between the halftone dots or plugs of the type.

Film Assembly - Positioning, mounting and securing various individual films to one carrier sheet in preparation for platemaking.

Fine Paper - Paper made specifically for writing or commercial printing, as opposed to coarse paper and industrial paper.

Fingerprint - To test a printing press to determine its exact printing characteristics, such as its dot gain, ink density and trapping, for the purpose of customizing color separations for those printing conditions.

Finish - General term for trimming, folding, binding and all other post-press operations. Also refers to the surface characteristics of paper.

Firewall - A hardware and software device that manages and limits access to certain network segments. Firewalls are used with local area networks (LAN) that are connected to the Internet, for example. The firewall limits what data can be retrieved from the Internet by LAN users and even what locations on the internet are accessible by users of LAN-based computers.

FireWire - A high-speed data bus. Firewire is particularly well suited to desktop video and audio applications, but hard disks and other devices also are starting to use this interface.

Flat - The assembled composite of negatives or positives ready for platemaking. Also, a term used to describe a photograph that is lacking in contrast.

Flatbed Scanner - A color scanner on which the original is mounted on a horizontal table instead of a rotary drum.

Flat Colors - Colors and tints that are not formulated from standard process colors. Also, color that seems weak or lifeless.

Flexography - A printing process that uses a raised surface of flexible rubber or photopolymer printing plate mounted on a rotary drum and thin, fast-drying inks to print on almost any roll stock.

Flop - Reversing a transparency or negative so that what was on the right side is now on the left.

Fluorescence - The ability of a substance, such as paper or ink, to absorb ultraviolet light waves and reflect them as visible light.

Flush Cover - A cover trimmed to the same size as the inside text pages.

Fly Leaf - The half of the end sheets not glued to the front and back covers of a case bound book.

Flying Paster - An automatic pasting device that splices a new roll of paper onto an expiring roll without stopping the web press.

Foil Stamp - To press a heated die onto a sheet of foil, releasing the foil from its backing and adhering it to a substrate.

Folio - In typesetting, the typeset page number. Right hand pages contain the odd number folios.

Fold - Bending and creasing a sheet of paper as required to form a printed product.

Font - A complete set of type characters in one typeface and type size.

Font Baseline - In printing, the line on which letters rest: characters g, j, p, q, and y descend below the baseline.

Font Cap Height - In printing, the height of the capital letters in a given typeface measured from the baseline.

Font Families - A font is one size and face of type. Electronic systems can create a family of characters from a single computerized font.

Font Kerning - The process of fitting adjacent characters together to use space efficiently and to produce attractive lines of text. Kerned characters nest together, and move under the rise of an adjacent letter, r, for example. The letter j can fit close to a preceding letter d, but the letter d can't move especially close to a preceding letter o.

Font Substitution - The process of choosing a print or display font that is close, but not the same as the specified font in a document or application. Applications substitute fonts when the precise font used in the loaded document or file is not installed. Font substitution can produce documents that are almost indistinguishable from the original, or documents that are wildly different, depending on the original font and what fonts are available for substitution.

Foot - The bottom of a page or book.

Foot Margin (also tail margin) - The distance between the bottom edge of the body of type (text) on a page and the bottom edge of the trimmed page.

Format - Size, shape and design of a printed piece.

Form - Each side of a signature.

Form Roller - A roller which comes in contact with the printing plate, bringing it water or ink.

For Position Only (FPO) - Refers to inferior quality copies of photos or art used on mechanicals to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended for reproduction.

Fountain Solution - A mixture of water and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent ink from adhering to the non-image areas.

Four-color Process - Use of cyan, magenta, yellow and black to create a full color image.

Free Sheet - Paper made from cooked wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of impurities.

Frequency - The lines per inch (lpi) in a halftone screen.

Frequency-modulated Screening - See Stochastic Screening.

Front End System - The computer hardware on which application software used to prepare pages of type and graphics is run.

FTP - File Transfer Protocol is the language computers speak to transfer files between systems over the Internet.

Fulfillment - The storing of a customer’s materials until that customer requests delivery to itself or to a third party. Also, the fulfilling by a vendor of a request received from a customer by phone, by mail or by electronic means. Also known as " pick and pack."

Full-scale Black - A black printer separation that prints dots in every part of the picture, from the highlight to the shadow. Also called full-range black.

Full-size Color Scanners - " Traditional" large format, drum type " high end" scanners used to bring color prints or negatives into a computer for manipulation, separation or printing.

Fuzz - Fibers projecting from the surface of a sheet of paper.

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Galley Proof - A printout of text used for proofreading before final page assembly.

Gamma - (1) In photography, the degree of contrast in an image. Film types are listed as creating certain gamma ranges appropriate to different uses. (2) In electronic color correction the difference in the status of the color curve. The color curve represents highlight to shadow values between current values and corrected values. Changing the color curve (making a gamma correction) increases or decreases the highlights, midtones, and shadows relative to the original points on the curve.

Gang - To halftone or separate more than one image in only one exposure. Also to print two or more finished products on the same sheet during one press run.

Gapless Press - A web press with special blanket cylinders that, with each rotation, allow more printing per square inch. This larger print space plus a shorter cutoff point can save a significant amount of paper on large runs.

Gateway - Software or hardware that enables communication between computer networks that use different communications protocols. Also called router.

Gather - To assemble folded signatures in proper sequence.

Gear Streaks - Parallel streaks appearing across the printed sheet at the same interval as the gear teeth on the cylinder.

Ghosting - Phenomenon of a faint image on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear.

GIF - The Graphic Interchange Format is a compression format for images. Pictures and graphics you see on Web pages are usually in GIF format because the files are small and download quickly.

Gigabyte (GB) - A measurement of disk storage capacity. One gigabyte is one thousand megabytes or 1,000,000,000 characters of storage space.

Glossy Paper - Coated paper with a shiny, relatively hard surface. Glossy paper is used to print photographs and other graphic material because the glossy surface accepts sharper printed images.

Goldenrod Paper - Specially coated masking paper in yellow or orange used by strippers to assemble and position negatives for exposure on plates.

Gradation - The relationship of the tonal values of an image to its intermediate films and reproduction as well as magnetic or optical representation. It may also refer to the tonal values within the picture.

Grain - The direction in which most fibers are aligned.

Grammage - The metric basis weight of paper. Weight is expressed in grams per square meter.

Graphic Arts - The visual reproduction of type and images by any of the several printing processes.

Graphic Communications - Allied industries, including printing, publishing, advertising and design, that participate in the production and dissemination of text and images by printed or electronic means.

Gravure - The process of printing from cylinders that contain cells that hold the ink for transfer to the substrate. In gravure color printing, each succeeding color is printed on a dry color, rather than one still wet as in letterpress and offset lithography.

Gray Balance - The proper amount of cyan, magenta and yellow printing to produce a gray scale with no apparent dominant hue.

Gray Component Replacement (GCR) - A color separation process that uses the black printer for the neutral gray portion of any color. Instead of mixing cyan, magenta and yellow to produce those grays, they are replaced with black ink. GCR deepens the shadows in an image that lacks depth. GCR completely replaces the grays with process black, unlike UCR which reduces process colors in the neutral grays and adds black.

Grayscale - An image which is in shades of gray, not black and white or converted to black and white.

Gray Stabilization - Ability to maintain neutral gray balance during a color reproduction. The use of GCR helps to stabilize neutrals.

Grindoff - The approximately 1/8 inch (3mm) that is removed along the spine of gathered signatures before perfect binding.

Gripper Edge - The leading edge of a sheet which is held by the grippers.

Gripper Margin - The unprintable area of the paper where it is gripped as it passes through a printing press. Usually measures a half inch or less.

Grippers - Metal fingers that clamp onto the paper and control its flow as it passes through the press.

Gutter - The inside margin of a bound page.

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Hairline Register - Register within plus or minus one-half row of dots.

Halftone - An image composed of tiny dots whose variations in size create the illusion of variations in tone. Traditionally, a halftone screen was used to convert a continuous tone image into a halftone; such screening is currently done electronically.

Halftone-based Digital Proofing - Producing a proof with reliable color and halftone pattern directly from a digital file, usually by electronic process, without producing a set of film negatives.

Hard Copy - A printed paper copy of output in readable form. It is also a transparency film or photograph of an image displayed on the monitor.

Hard Dots - Second generation dots or laser-generated dots that have hard edges without any fringe.

Hard Proof - A color proof made on a substrate from production films or on a substrate directly from the stored pixel data. The latter is usually referred to as a digital hard proof, and a video proof as a digital soft proof.

Hazard Communication Standard - An OSHA regulation that requires chemical manufacturers, suppliers and importers to assess the hazards of the chemicals that they make, supply or import, and to inform employers, customers and workers of these hazards through Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).

Head - The top of a page or book.

Heatset - Web printing process whereby non-absorbent paper goes through the press and the ink is dried by heat.

Hickey - Spot on a printed sheet usually due to dust, lint or bits of paper.

Highlight - The lightest area of a photograph that has the smallest or fewest dots when made into a halftone.

HLS/HSV - Abbreviations for hue, lightness and saturation and hue, saturation and value. These are different names for the same color-control options found in most desktop software.

Holdout - A property of coated paper with low ink absorption which allows ink to set on the surface with high gloss. Too much holdout can cause ink to rub off or mark the next sheet.

Hot Spot - Printing defect caused when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete drawdown during contact platemaking, leaving an area of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.

House Sheet - Paper kept in stock by a printer and suitable for a wide variety of printing jobs.

HTML - Hypertext Markup Language is used to structure text and multimedia documents and to set up hypertext links between documents, used extensively on the World Wide Web.

HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol is used to request and transmit files, especially Web pages and Web page components, over the Internet or other computer network.

Hue - The attribute of color that designates its dominant wave length and distinguishes it from other colors.

Hypertext - A computer-based text retrieval system that enables a user to access particular locations in Web pages or other electronic documents by clicking on links within specific Web pages or documents.

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Icon - In a computer system, a picture or drawing, such as a paint brush or trash can that represents a file or function. Clicking the mouse on the icon activates the procedure or opens the file.

Illustration Software - Software used to generate vector-based images.

Image - The digitized representation of a graphic element (photograph, painting, film) bitmapped in computer memory for display on a video monitor for output in paper or film form.

Image Area - On a lithographic printing plate, the area that has been specially treated to receive ink and repel water.

Image Capture - The process of converting photographs or other artwork into digital data so that they can be used in computer-based layouts.

Image Carrier - The device on a printing press that carries an inked image either to an intermediate rubber blanket or directly to the paper or other printing substrate. A direct-printing letterpress form, a lithographic plate, a gravure cylinder and a screen used in screen printing are examples of image carriers.

Image Editing Software - Software programs used for working with pixel-based images to refine, enhance and manipulate them, as well as to create graphic elements.

Image to Plate on Press - Technology that images one or more plates in position on press for color reproduction.

Imagesetter - A high-resolution laser output device that writes data on photosensitive paper or film. The data is processed by a RIP and can record halftones and line images as well as type.

Imposition - Laying out pages in a press form so that when the pages are printed and folded they will be in proper order.

Impression - One sheet passing once through the press.

Impression Cylinder - The hard metal cylinder that presses the paper against the inked blanket cylinder, transferring the inked image to the substrate. The impression cylinder on most sheetfed presses uses paper grippers to hold the sheet through its rotation.

Imprinting - To print new copy on a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee’s name on business cards.

Infeed - (1) The section of a sheetfed press where the sheet is transferred from the registering devices of the feedboard to the first impression cylinder. (2) The set of rollers controlling web tension ahead of the first unit on a web press.

In-line - Components of a system arranged in a logical production sequence and in such a way that materials are automatically fed to the next component. An example would be a coating tower on a press to apply the lacquer or UV coating on the same pass as the color.

Indirect Screen - The process of first separating a photo or artwork into the four process colors by creating continuous tones. The dots are then added using an additional process.

Ink - A printing ink is a dispersion of a colored solid (pigment) in a liquid, specially formulated to reproduce an image on a substrate.

Ink Balance - Relationship of the densities and dot gain of process inks to each other and to a standard density of neutral gray.

Inking System - The section of a lithographic press that controls the distribution of ink to the plate.

Ink Jet - A method of printing images using jets that squirt minuscule drops of ink onto a variety of surfaces.

Inplant - A department or division of a company that usually does printing for only that company.

Insert - A printed piece prepared for insertion into a publication or another printed piece.

Intaglio - Method of printing in which the image is etched below the non-printing surface. Gravure and engraving are the most common forms.

Intensity - The measurement of color from dull to brilliant.

Internet - The " official" name for an international network of computer networks linked to provide and share information and resources about a seemingly limitless number of topics.

Intranet - A private network within an organization (always lower case). Firewalls often keep Internet traffic off an intranet.

Interpolation - In the image manipulation context, this is the increase of image resolution by the addition of new pixels throughout the image, the colors of which are based on neighboring pixels.

IP - Internet Protocol is the language that allows computers to communicate over the Internet, defining how data is cut up into packets and addressed in order to reach its destination.

IP Address - A unique, numerical address that identifies network elements in a TCP/IP network such as the Internet.

ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network is a set of digital telecommunications standards that transmit voice, video, and data over standard phone lines. Not nearly as fast as DSL or cable modems.

ISO - International Standards Organization.

ISP - Internet Service Provider.

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Java - A trademark used for a programming language designed to develop applications, especially ones for the Internet, that can operate on different platforms.

JavaScript - Intended to provide a quicker and simpler language for enhancing Web pages and servers.

Job Specifications - A detailed description of the requirements of a print job.

Job Ticket - Form used by service bureaus, separators and printers to specify the production schedule of a job and the materials needed.

Jog - To align the edges of a pile of paper by hitting or shaking against a flat surface.

JPEG - A standardized image compression mechanism. One of the two most common types of images used on the World Wide Web, the other being GIF. JPEG is named after the Joint Photographic Experts Group, the original name of the committee that wrote the standard. The shorter JPG (without the E) extension/version is usually used only in association with PC platform file.

Justified - When type is justified, both margins (left and right) are even and straight.

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K - Abbreviation for black in four-color process printing.

Kelvin - A unit of measure used to describe the color temperature of a light source, such as the 5000K standard viewing conditions.

Kerning - The adjustment of space between two consecutive letters or characters.

Key Plate - Negative or plate that prints the most detail (usually black) and to which other plates are aligned.

Keyline - A guide to a printing job. All the key elements such as type or illustrations are pasted down (usually with wax) to indicate size and position on artwork board or poster board.

Kilobyte - K, Kb or KB. A unit of measuring digital information which equals 1,024 bytes.

Kiss Cut - To die cut the top layer but not the backing of self-adhesive paper.

Kiss Impression - Lightest possible impression that will transfer ink to a substrate.

Knife - In folding machines, the three or four blades at different levels and at right angles to each other that force the paper between the folding rollers. The sheet of paper is pushed from one knife folding mechanism to the other until the desired number of folds have been made.

Knock Out - To clear an area of absolutely every printing dot; or to outline an image and drop out all dots surrounding it.

Kraft Paper - Strong brown paper made with unbleached wood pulp and used for grocery bags, envelopes and wrapping paper.

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Lacquer - A clear resin/solvent coating, usually glossy, applied to a printed sheet for protection or appearance.

Laminate - To bond a plastic film by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection and appearance.

LAN - Workstations and personal computers in an office are commonly connected to each other with a LAN (Local Area Network); this allows them to send/receive files and/or have access to the files and data. Each computer connected to a LAN is called a node.

Lap Register - Register where ink colors overlap slightly.

Large-format Imagesetter - In-house equipment to output computer files, typically full impositions, to strippable films 23" x 35" or larger.

Layout - A drawing that gives the general appearance of the finished piece and usually indicates the relationship between illustrations and copy.

LCD - The primitive, two-tone screen of a digital watch, a pager, or a vintage computer is a liquid crystal display.

Leading - (ledd-ing) The linespace, or white space, between lines of copy measured in points.

Leaf - One sheet of paper in a publication. Each side of a leaf is one page.

Letterpress - A method of printing where the wrong-reading raised surface of a printing plate is inked and impressed directly onto the paper. There are four types of letterpress presses; platen, flatbed cylinder, rotary and belt.

Line Art - Artwork which is only black and white, without any shades of gray.

Line Copy - High contrast images or type without shading which do not require halftone screening.

Lines per inch (LPI) - A specification that shows how many lines of printed data appear in each inch of paper.

Lithography - Method of printing using plates whose image areas attract ink and whose non-image areas repel ink. The images are first printed onto a rubber blanket and then offset to paper.

Live Matter - The vital parts or elements of a printed piece which must not be trimmed off.

Lossy - Image compression that functions by removing minor tonal and/or color variations, causing visible loss of detail at high compression ratios.

Loupe - Lens built into a small stand. Used to inspect copy, film, proofs, plates and printing.

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M - The abbreviation for magenta in the four-color process. Also the abbreviation for " one thousand."

Magenta - One of the three subtractive primary colors of process printing. It is commonly called " process red."

Makegood - The rerun of an ad or printed piece by a publisher or printer because of their error.

Makeready - The process of setting up and adjusting a printing press for a particular ink, paper and set of printing conditions prior to a press run. Also, the paper used during these adjustments.

Margin - The blank space around the image area of a page, also referred to as a gutter.

Marks - Guides; lines, crosses or other targets used for registering plates, specifying trim, fold, and bleeds.

Mask - An opaque overlay placed over any part of a photo or separation negative that should not be exposed to light.

Master - To etch pits (tracks) into the Glass Master (acts like a negative) from which a CD-ROM " stamper" is made.

Master Page - A non-printing page containing elements which are repeated on each page of a document, such as header, footer, page number etc.; ensures consistent design.

Mastering/pressing CD-ROMs - Preparation of compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM) discs from customer-supplied materials as alternative or value-added sales opportunity.

Match Color - In printing, the duplication of a specified color by using either multiple process colors or special flat colors. Match colors may be defined by supplied samples or by numbers from color matching systems.

Matchprint™ - 3M’s negative or positive single sheet proofing system which simulates SWOP specifications.

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) - A product specification form used to record information about the hazardous chemicals and other health and physical hazards employees face in an industrial workplace, along with guidelines covering exposure limits and other precautions. Employers are required to compile and maintain files of this information under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard set forth by the U.S. federal government.

Matte - Surface finish of a substrate that is not shiny like a gloss.

Mechanical - Complete pages, with text, line art and crop marks in position, ready to be photographed or output to film.

Mechanical Binding - Clasping individual sheets together with plastic, small wire, or metal rings. Two examples are three-ring binding and spiral binding.

Megabyte - Mb or MB. A unit of measure for digital data which is 1,024 kilobytes or 1,048,576 bytes.

Metameric Colors - Colors that can change their perceived hue depending on the different lighting conditions.

Metric System - A decimal system adopted by most countries for solid, liquid and distance measurements.

Midtone - The tonal values of an image that fall midway between the highlight and shadow dots.

Misregister - Printed images that are incorrectly positioned, either in reference to each other or to the sheet’s edges.

Modeling - The apparent detail in a picture indicating that the objects are three dimensional; having surface texture or relief such as the ripple on an orange peel or the texture of a woven fabric.

Moire - Objectionable patterns that appear at regular frequencies when two or more screen patterns are placed over one another. May be caused by misalignment, incorrect screen angles, slipping or slurring.

Monochrome - Single-colored. An image or medium displaying only black-and-white or grayscale information. Grayscale information displayed in one color is also monochrome.

Mottle - The result of uneven ink absorption or poorly formed paper surfaces, this spotty variation in color or gloss appears most often in large solid or tint areas.

Mount - To fasten the plate or blanket to an offset press.

Moveable Type - The individual metal or wooden type characters that are taken from the typecase, arranged to form words and sentences, and then returned to the case for reuse later.

MP3 - A digital audio file format with CD quality that lets Internet users download songs to a PC or to a portable player.

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Negative - The film image of a completed page from which plates will be burned. The light and dark parts of the image are tonally revised from the original copy.

Neutral Gray - Any level of gray from white to black with no apparent color cast or hue.

Noise - In the scanning context, this refers to random, incorrectly read pixel values normally due to electrical interference or device instability. In the image context, this refers to a patterning that can be applied to an image, often used to soften a gradient or provide a special effect.

Non-heatset - Web printing process whereby porous paper goes through the press and the ink dries naturally.

Non-image Area - The portion of a lithographic printing plate that is treated to accept water and repel ink when the plate is on the press. Only the ink-receptive areas will print an image.

Non-impact Printing - A printing device that creates letters or images on a substrate without striking it. Large, high-speed and ordinary office photocopiers as well as laser and ink-jet printers are some examples.

Non-lossy - Image compression without loss of quality.

Non-reproducible Colors - Certain colors in nature and photography cannot be reproduced using process inks. An example of non-reproducible color is a very dark, deep, rich, wine red.

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Oblong - A booklet or catalog bound along the shorter dimension.

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) - A federal law enacted in 1970 to protect workers from industrial hazards. OSHA inspectors may appear unannounced or at the request of an employee to examine any plant for violations of the safety and health standards set forth by the act.

OCR - Optical Character Recognition. A computer software application that reads graphical material, such as a scanned document, and converts the graphical image into text that can be input to a word processor or text editor.

OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer, a misleading term for a company that has a special relationship with computer producers. OEMs buy computers in bulk and customize them for a particular application. They then sell the customized computer under their own name. The term is really a misnomer because OEMs are not the original manufacturers, they are the customizers.

Off-line - Production operations conducted out-of-process rather than in-line (on-press), such as die-cutting or the application of special coatings via dedicated equipment.

Off-press Proof - A color proof that is similar in appearance to the finished printed product but is made without the aid of a printing press.

Offset Printing - Usually refers to offset lithography. The image prints by transferring ink from a flat plate or cylinder to a rubber blanket that deposits the ink onto the substrate instead of directly from plate to paper.

Offset Spray - A dry spray of powdered starch at delivery end of press used to separate freshly printed sheets with a fine layer of particles, thus allowing the ink to dry and avoiding undesirable offsetting.

Offsetting - A print quality problem where wet ink from a freshly printed sheet is transferred to the sheet above or below it in the delivery pile. Also called offset, or setoff.

Online - Being connected to the Internet.

One-up - Having only one image of each item (see two-up).

Opacity - Characteristic of paper or other substrate that prevents print on one side from showing through to the other side. Also, the characteristic of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.

Opaque - To paint out the portions of a negative that are not wanted on the plate.

OpenType Fonts - Standard fonts, based on the Microsoft TrueType fonts, that contain screen and printer fonts in a set.

OPI - Open Prepress Interface. The automatic updating of low-resolution files to high-resolution files at final RIP.

Optical Centering - Positioning material a little above center when it is desired to make it appear centered with respect to top and bottom.

Optical Gain - An effect caused by printing on a rough-surfaced paper in which halftone dots appear larger than actual size, resulting in image degradation.

Optical Resolution - In the scanning context, this refers to the number of truly separate readings taken from an original within a given distance, as opposed to the subsequent increase in resolution (but not detail) created by software interpolation.

Orphan - In type, a single line of type sitting alone at the bottom of a page; usually the first line of a new paragraph that continues in the next column or page. Should be avoided.

Orthochromatic - A term applied to photographic materials that are sensitive to green, blue and ultraviolet light.

Outline Halftone - A photo reproduction in which the background around the primary subject has been removed.

Output - Processed optical or electronic data transferred to another device such as a secondary storage unit, a laser printer, an electronic manipulation station, or an analog or digital proofing device.

Overlay - A tissue over the base keyline for writing corrections and instructions such as indicating color breaks.

Overlay Proof - Color proof which simulates the appearance of the printed piece. It consists of sheets of film dyed or pigmented with the color and image of each plate to be used in the print run. The film is stacked so it is in register and in the order the inks will be printed.

Overprint - To print over an area that has previously been printed.

Overrun - Copies printed and/or bound in excess of the specified quantity.

Oxidation - Combining oxygen with the drying oil in a printing ink to promote a slow chemical reaction that produces a dry ink film.

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Packing - Paper used to underlay the image or impression cylinder in letterpress or the plate or blanket in lithography to get the proper squeeze and pressure for printing.

Page - One side of a leaf in a publication.

Page Layout Software - Computer programs used to assemble type and images into page form.

Page Makeup - The assembly of all elements to make up a page.

Pagination - Numbering pages in order. Also, the process of performing page makeup on a computer.

Palette - The collection of colors or shades available or used in a project, graphic system or program.

Panchromatic - Film that is sensitive to all colors of light.

Panel - One page of a brochure on one side of the paper. A letter folded sheet has six panels.

Paper Grain - The alignment of fibers along the direction of flow in paper making. In grain-long paper, fibers run parallel to the sheet's length, while grain-short follows the width. Generally, registration is easier to control, folds are cleaner, and binding stronger when running with the grain.

Parallel Fold - A folding succession in which all folds are made parallel with each other.

Partition - On a hard drive, logical segments that present a large disk to the OS as separate physical drives. Partitioning lets you store different types of data on separate partitions, or to create a disk that can boot into multiple operating systems.

Paste-up - Placing graphics and text in a mechanical either manually or electronically.

PDF - Portable document format. A computer file format that preserves a printed or electronic document’s original layout, type fonts and graphics as one unit for electronic transfer and viewing. The recipient uses compatible " reader" software to access and even print the PDF file.

Perfect Binding - Signatures that are folded and collated on top of one another, as opposed to saddle-stitch binding in which the signatures are folded inside one another.

Perfecting Press - Press that prints on both sides of the paper during a single pass.

Perforating - Punching a row of small hole or incisions into or through a sheet of paper to permit part of it to be detached; to guide in folding; to allow air to escape from signatures; or to prevent wrinkling when folding heavy papers.

Photomechanical Process - The image reproduction process that involves photosensensitive imaging products (paper, film, proofing materials, and plates) that react to light. During the photomechanical process these materials are images using a contacting procedure.

Photostat - Brand name for a diffusion transfer process used to make positive paper prints of line copy and halftones.

Phototypesetting - Setting type directly on film or photosensitive paper for reproduction.

Pica - Unit of measure commonly used in typesetting and design. A pica is one-sixth of an inch.

Picking - The lifting of the paper surface during printing, leaving unprinted spots in image areas. This occurs when the pulling force (tack) of the ink is greater than the surface strength of the paper.

Pickup Art - Artwork from a previous job incorporated into a current job.

PICT/PICT2 - A common format for defining images and drawings on the Macintosh platform. PICT 2 supports 24-bit color.

Pigment - The fine, solid particles used to give color, transparency or opacity to ink.

Piling - The building up or caking of ink on rollers, plates or blankets which will not transfer readily.

Pinholes - Tiny areas that are not covered by ink.

Pixel - Abbreviation for picture element. The separate elements of a bitmapped image on a video monitor.

Pixel Swopping - A CEPS technique to exchange pixels from one area of a picture for pixels in another area. Example: a window may be removed from a brick building if one area of the brick wall is placed in that area of the picture. Using this technique, blemishes can be removed and objects can be added to the reproduction.

Plate - Piece of paper, metal, plastic or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a printing press.

Plate Cylinder - In lithography, the cylinder that holds the printing plate tightly and in register on press. It places the plate in contact with the dampening rollers that wet the nonimage area and the inking rollers that ink the image area, then transfers the inked image to the blanket, which is held on its own cylinder.

Platemaking - Preparing a printing plate or other image carrier so that it is ready for the press.

Platesetters - A device that images printing plates directly from digital image data; no film or any analog processes are required.

PMS - Acronym for Pantone Matching System, a set of preprinted color patches used to choose and communicate color so exact matches can be obtained.

Point - Unit of measurement commonly used to specify type sizes. There are 12 points in a pica and 72 points in an inch.

POP - Point of Presence, terminology for local access to a network or telecom service. Also point of purchase.

Porosity - The property of paper that allows the permeation of air, an important factor in ink penetration.

Position Proof - A color proof that is made to verify that all the elements of the reproduction (text, graphics and pictures) are in the correct position and are in register with each other.

Positive - A reproduction which is exactly like the original.

Post Bind - To bind using a screw and post inserted though a hole in a pile of loose sheets.

Postpress - The final stages in the printing process in which printed sheets are transformed into saleable products, including binding, finishing and delivery.

PostScript - A printer or display language that defines program or application output.

Pre-flight - Procedures used by a printing company to make sure that a customer’s digital files are correctly prepared for production.

Pre-flight Customer Files - To preliminarily evaluate customer supplied electronic files for completeness, compatibility, and composition.

Premakeready - The stage prior to printing in which all production specs are examined, necessary materials are brought to the press, and materials are checked for damage.

Pre-master - To format a data file into the ISO 9660 format (which is the International Standard for CD-ROM), before the mastering process. The data file is then provided to the party responsible for the mastering process (see master).

Prepress - Camera work, color separating, stripping, platemaking and other functions performed by the printer, separator or service bureau prior to the actual printing.

Prepress Proof - Any color proof made using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays.

Press Check - When a customer is at the printing press as the press begins to print his or her job, in order to approve the job as it is printed. A press check can last a few minutes or several days, depending on the size of the job.

Press Proof - A proof made on press using the ink and paper specified for the job.

Press Run - The actual running of the press to print the job following makeready. Also, the number of copies of a publication printed.

Presswork - All operations performed on or by a printing press that lead to the transfer of inked images from the image carrier to the paper or other substrate.

Price Break - Quantity at which unit cost of paper or printing drops.

Primary Colors - The colorants of a system used to reproduce the colors for the entire reproduction. Cyan, magenta and yellow are subtractive primary colors while red, green and blue are additive primary colors.

Printer’s Spread - Two facing pages in the order they will be printed, e.g. pages 1 and 4 and also 2 and 3 will be keylined together for a four-page brochure.

Print-on-Demand - The capability to print documents right at the time they are required by patrons and consumers, rather than following traditional norms of printing documents in advance of need and coping with the need to distribute and inventory printed documents in anticipation of demand.

Print Quality - The degree to which the appearance and other properties of a print job approach the desired result.

Printing - Any process that transfers to paper or another substrate an image from an original such as film, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.

Printing Plates - A thin metal, plastic or paper sheet that serves as the image carrier in many printing processes.

Printing Unit - The sections on printing presses that house the components for reproducing an image on the substrate. In lithography, a printing unit includes the inking and dampening systems and the plate, blanket and impression cylinders.

Process Camera (also called graphic arts camera) - A camera used to photograph line or halftone copy or to produce color separation negatives for printing on another production process.

Process Colors - The three colors (cyan, magenta and yellow) plus black that are used in full-color printing.

Process Color Separation - A consequence of the offset lithographic process. In order to print full-color images, it is necessary to prepare four separate files for each of the process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow and black). When the colors are overprinted, they combine to render a wide range of color. CMYK produces the widest range of color with the fewest inks when printing.

Process Control - A system using feedback to monitor and manage a certain procedure; input and output data are tabulated according to specific formulas and compared with certain standards and limits; the process is then adjusted as necessary.

Process Inks - The ink colors of cyan, magenta and yellow used to print color reproductions.

Process Photography - (1) Creating line and halftone images for photomechanical reproduction. (2) The equipment, materials and methods used in preparing color-separated printing forms for color reproduction.

Production Automation - Use of a centralized computer to monitor costing, workflow, job status, pressroom efficiency, billing, etc.

Production Workflow - A sequence of production steps required to produce any printed item.

Profile - The color characteristics of an input or output device, used by a Color Management System to ensure color fidelity.

Progressive Proof - A set of proofs made with ink on paper from the actual plates to show the sequence of printing and the result after each additional color is applied. Also called progs.

Proof - A prototype of an image that is supposed to show how it will appear when printed on the press.

Proportion Scale - Round device used to calculate percentage that an original image must be reduced or enlarged to yield a specific reproduction size.

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Quadratone - A halftone image created by overprinting four different halftone screens of the same image with different tonal values.

Quads - Refers to the four separated films; cyan, magenta, yellow and black.

Quality Control - The day-to-day operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality, such as intermediate and final product inspections, testing incoming materials and calibrating instruments used to verify product quality.

Quartertone - Those dot percentages that are near the 25 percent printing dot size.

Quarto - Sheet folded twice, making pages one-fourth the size of the original sheet. A quarto makes an 8-page signature.

Quotation - Price offered by a printer to produce a specific job.

QWERTY - The standard keyboard, named after the first six letters in the upper row.

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Ragged - Type that is not justified on the right or left side.

Rag Paper - Paper containing a minimum of 25% rag or cotton fiber pulp.

RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A multidisk storage device that provides high-speed data access plus fault tolerance. Especially popular among video, sound, and other multimedia producers on the Mac.

Rainbow™ - 3M’s digital, high resolution, thermal dye sublimation, desktop color proofing system.

Rainbow Fountain - Technique of putting ink colors next to each other in the same ink fountain and oscillating the ink rollers to make the colors merge where they touch, producing a rainbow effect.

RAM - Random Access Memory is hardware inside your computer that retains memory on a short-term basis. This information is stored temporarily while you’re working on it.

Random Proof - A color proof consisting of many images ganged on one substrate and randomly positioned with no relation to the final page imposition. This is a cost-effective way to verify the correctness of completed scans prior to further stripping and color correction work. Also called scatter proof.

Raster - To convert mathematical and digital information into a series of dots by an imagesetter or recorder as digital data that will be used for output.

RC Paper - The photosensitive resin-coated paper generally used to record the output of typesetters and imagesetters.

Reader’s Spread - Keylines of two facing pages in correct numerical order, e.g., pages 2 and 3.

Ream - 500 sheets of printing paper. Stacks and skids of paper often include slips of paper (ream markers) marking the division of the stack into reams.

Recto Page - The right-hand or odd-numbered page of an open book or spread.

Recycled Paper - New paper made entirely or in part from old paper.

Reflection Copy - Any opaque color artwork submitted for reproduction such as photos, sketches or paintings.

Reflective Copy - Any painting, artwork or photograph (not transparencies) that reflects light off its surface.

Register - The fitting of two or more printing images on the same paper in exact alignment with each other.

Register Marks - Crosses or other targets applied to original copy prior to photography. Used for positioning films in register, or for register of two or more colors in process printing.

Registration - The correct positioning of one color over another during the printing process.

Relief Printing - Printing method whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels having inked areas higher than non-inked areas. Types include block printing, flexography and letterpress.

Remote proofing - Digital transmission of a proof to a remote office or customer location for output and evaluation at the remote site.

Repeatability - The precision with which a device can position an image, usually measured in microns. For example, a capstan imagesetter has low repeatability compared with a drum imagesetter which is more accurate in its operation.

Replicate - In the manufacturing of a CD-ROM, to mold the actual disc by injecting molten polycarbonate into the mold cavity (stamper), then quickly cool the plastic to harden it, a process which takes less than 15 seconds. After replication of the disc, art is printed onto the non-data side of the disc via silk-screen or offset printing.

Reprint - An ad which is printed and then sent to a magazine for insertion. Also refers to a reprint of ads supplied by the publication before the publication is issued.

Resolution - Sharpness of an image. Also quantification of laser print quality using number of dots per inch.

Retouch - To correct flaws in an image or make design changes.

Reverse - Type, graphic or illustration produced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing the underlying color or paper to show through and form the image. The image " reverses out" of the ink color. Also called knock out or liftout.

RGB - Red, green and blue. The additive primaries which are used in video monitors.

Right-angle Fold - A folding succession in which each succeeding fold is made at right angles to the preceding one.

Right Reading - Copy that reads correctly in the language in which it is written. Also describes a photo whose orientation looks like the original image.

RIP - Abbreviation for raster image processing, a hardware and/or software system that translates page description command into bitmaps for output to a laser printer or imagesetter.

ROM - Read-Only Memory, a storage device whose contents cannot be altered.

Rosette Pattern - The desirable minute circle of dots that is formed when two or more process color screens are overprinted at their appropriate angle, screen ruling and dot shape.

Rotogravure - A printing process that uses a cylinder as an image carrier. Image areas are etched below nonimage area in the form of tiny sunken cells. The cylinder is immersed in ink, and the excess ink is scraped off by a blade. When the substrate contacts the printing cylinder, ink transfers, forming the image.

RRED - Right reading, emulsion side down.

Rub Proof - Ink that has reached its maximum dryness and does not mar with normal abrasion.

Rubylith - A red acetate masking film used in stripping to make an opening.

Rule - A straight line of any thickness or a line used as a graphic element to separate or organize copy.

Run Around - Type that is made to fit around a picture of art.

Run of Paper (ROP) - Printing full color in newspaper but using the same paper and press as the balance of the newspaper.

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Saddle-sewn - A form of binding that stitches thread through the gutter fold of a publication.

Saddle-stitched - A form of binding that uses staple-shaped wires through the gutter fold; also called saddle-wired.

Safelight - A lamp for use in the darkroom that gives light of a color that will not affect the photographic material within a reasonable time. Different photographic materials require different safelight filters.

Sans Serif Type - Any type style that does not have cross strokes on the ends of the letters.

Saturation - The measurement of the amount of color pigment in a color. Also referred to as chroma.

Scale - Calculate the amount a photo or artwork is to be reduced or enlarged.

Scanner - Electronic device used to digitize an image.

Scatter Proof - Another name for a random proof.

Score - To compress paper along a straight line so it folds more easily and accurately.

Screen - Plastic sheets that have cross-hatched lines. These screens are placed between the camera and the original photo or continuous tones to break the image into dots to create a halftone image.

Screen Angles - Angles at which the halftone screens are placed with relation to one another to avoid undesirable moire pattern. The most common angles are black 45°, magenta 75°, yellow 90° and cyan 105°.

Screen Frequency - The number of rows (lines) and columns of dots per inch or centimeter of a halftone screen.

Screen Printing - Method of printing by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly of mesh fabric and a stencil.

Screen Ruling - Sometimes confused with resolution, screen ruling is the number of printing dots per millimeter or per inch on the exposed film. The screen ruling is a critical factor in determining the resolution need. The finer the screen ruling, the higher the resolution needs to be, due to the amount of information required to generate the printing dots.

Screen Tint - A halftone screen pattern of all the same size dots that creates an even tone.

SCSI - Small Computer System Interface, allows peripherals to communicate with a computer’s operating system

Scuffing - Undesirable print abrasions caused by surface wear or rough handling. Particularly problematic in packaging, scuffing may be minimized with scuff-proof inks, varnishes, and other coatings.

Search Engines - These engines help Internet surfers target information by keyword or concept.

Secondary Colors - Colors created by combining two primary colorants of a color system. Example: red would be the secondary color produced with magenta and yellow. Also referred to as overprint colors.

Second Pass - The extra passage of a sheet through the press for additional color impressions or coating applications.

Selective Binding - Placing signatures or inserts in magazines and catalogs according to demographic or geographic guidelines.

Self Cover - A cover made from the same paper as the inside text pages.

Separation - The process of getting different colors on different plates/film.

Serif Type - Any type style that has cross strokes on the ends of the letters.

Serigraphics Printing - Printing method whose image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or metal that allows ink to pass through some portions and blocks ink from passing through other portions. Types include screen and mimeograph.

Service Bureau - A business that provides manipulation and output of digital files, usually to a PostScript imagesetter.

Set-off - Ink from a printed sheet rubs off or marks the next sheet as it is being delivered. Also called offset.

Shadow - The darkest areas of an image or photograph; represented as the largest dots in a halftone.

Sharpen - To decrease in color strength, as when halftone dots become smaller. Opposite of dot gain.

Sheeter - A device on a printing press that converts continuous forms into smaller sheets.

Sheetfed Press - A printing press that feeds and prints on individual sheets of paper (or another substrate), rather than a continuous paper roll or web.

Sheetwise - To print one side of a sheet of paper with one form or plate, then turn the sheet over and print the other side with another form using the same gripper and side guide. This method is used for printing signatures.

Shingling - A technique used to compensate for creep. The gutter margin on a page is gradually narrowed from the outside pages to the middle pages of the signature.

Show-through - The undesirable condition in which the printing on the reverse side of a sheet can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting conditions.

Shrink Wrap - Using heat to affix a thin plastic material around printed and bound products to prepare them for shipment.

Side Stitch - To bind by stapling through all sheets along one edge.

Signature - A group of pages brought together into proper sequential order and alignment after it has been folded.

Signature Proof - Kodak’s proofing system, negative/positive, on most stocks.

Silhouette Halftone - A halftone with all of the background removed.

Silverprint - A proof that is made of the negative film to ensure that all elements are accurate and in correct position before the plate is made.

Sizing - Treatment of paper which gives it resistance to the penetration of liquids (particularly water) or vapors.

Skid (also pallet) - Wooden platform that supports piles of paper during shipping and storage. Skids usually accommodate from 2500 to 4000 pounds of paper.

Slit - To cut printed sheets or webs into two or more sections by means of cutting wheels on a press or folder.

Slur - A smearing of ink that occurs in printing when there isn’t enough pressure on the blanket.

SMTP - The language computers must speak to send and receive email on the Internet.

SNAP - Specifications for Nonheatset Advertising Printing, a set of standards for color separations and proofing developed for those printing with uncoated paper and newsprint stock in the United States.

Soft Dot - Halftone dot with a weak fringe density or halo surrounding a solid core.

Soft Proof - A proof that is viewed on a color-calibrated video monitor as opposed to a hard proof printed on paper.

Solid - Any area of the sheet receiving 100 percent ink coverage.

Solvent - A component of the vehicle in printing inks that disperses the pigment and keeps the solid binder liquid enough for use in the printing process.

Spam - Electronic junk mail.

Specs - Complete and precise written description (or specifications) of features of a printing job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity, printing quality or binding method.

Spectrum - The series of color bands formed when a ray of light is dispersed by refraction; the rainbow-like band of colors resulting when a ray of white light is passed through a prism.

Splice - The area where two paper rolls are joined to form one continuous roll.

Spider - Search engine technology. A simple program that scans the Web, crawling from link to link in search of new sites and recording the URL’s.

Spine - The back of a bound book connecting the two covers. Also called backbone.

Spiral Bind - To bind using a spiral of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes. Also called coil bind.

Splash - A " first" or " front" page that you often see on some Web sites usually containing a " click-through" logo or message.

Split Run - Different images, such as advertisements, printed or bound in different editions of a publication. Also, two or more binding methods used on the same print run.

Spooler - A device by which a computer can store data and feed it gradually to an external device, such as a printer, which is operating more slowly than the computer.

Spot Color - Individual color or colors that are utilized to highlight illustrations or type. Spot color is frequently printed with non-process color inks, although process inks can be used.

Spot Varnish - Varnish applied only to certain portions of a sheet to highlight those areas.

Spread - Two facing pages. They can be a reader’s spread or a printer’s spread.

Square Halftone - A halftone that has four right-angle corners.

Stamping - Using a die and often colored foil or gold leaf to press a design into a book cover, a sheet of paper or another substrate. The die may be used alone (in blank stamping) if no color or other ornamentation is necessary. Special presses fitted with heating devices can stamp designs into book covers.

Standard Viewing Condition - An area surrounded by a neutral gray and illuminated by a light source of 5000K both for viewing transparencies and reflection prints. Large format transparencies should be surrounded by approximately 2-4 inches or 5-10 centimeters of white surround and should not be viewed with a dark surround.

Stat - Short for photostat, a photographic print of line copy or halftones.

Static Neutralizer - A device on a printing press designed to remove static from the paper and avoid ink set-off and trouble with feeding the paper.

Statistical Process Control (SPC) - Method of understanding and managing production processes by collecting numerical data about each step in the process and all materials used in the production sequence, including output; this data is then analyzed to locate causes of variations.

Step-and-repeat - The procedure of exposing an image repeatedly in different places on the printing plate.

Stochastic Screening - A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing.

Stock - The paper or other substrate to be printed.

Storage - Nonvolatile devices, including hard disk drives and floppy drives, used to store computer information or programs.

Streaming Media - Web technologies that let viewers hear and see audio and video data as it arrives, rather than waiting for an entire file to download.

Strip - To assemble images on film for platemaking. Stripping involves correcting flaws in film, assembling pieces of film into flats and ensuring that film and flats register correctly.

Stripping - The process of manually creating composite films and fully imposed flats for platemaking. Most of this work is now done electronically, bypassing the traditional artisan.

Substrate - Any surface on which printing is done.

Subtractive Color System - A means of producing a color reproduction or image with combinations of yellow, magenta and cyan colorants, which serve as filters to " remove" colors from a white substrate.

Supercalender - A finishing device consisting of alternate metal and resilient rollers used to produce a smooth, thin sheet of paper.

Swatch - A small, printed solid used for color matching or measurement. It represents what an ink color might look like after it is printed.

SWOP - Abbreviation for the revised Specifications for Web-Offset Publications; a set of specifications for color separation films and color proofing to insure the consistency of the printed color.

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TAC - Total Area Coverage. Percentage of ink in a file that a press can hold.

Tack - The amount of stickiness in printing inks that makes them adhere to the substrate while minimizing dot gain. Too much tack can cause surface picking.

TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the international language of the Internet. This set of protocols makes e-mail and other services possible among computers that don’t belong to the same network.

Tear Sheet - Actual ad removed from a publication and sent to the advertiser, often with the invoice.

Template - A complete master, including master pages and style sheets, created to ensure the continuity of design elements throughout a document or series of documents.

Terabyte - Tb or TB. Equal to approximately one billion kilobytes and often used to measure optical disk storage capacity.

Text - The body matter of a page or book as distinguished from the heading and art.

Text Stock - Paper stock used for the pages of reports, books, and other printing where the stiffness of card stock is not required. Text stock is described by pound weight determined by the weight of 500 sheets that are 25 inches by 38 inches in size. For example, 500 sheets of 80-lb. text stock cut 25 by 38 inches weigh 80 pounds.

Thermography - Method of printing using colorless resin powder that takes on the color of underlying ink.

Thumbnail Sketch - Crude, small layouts sketched in pencil to develop the initial concept for a design.

TIFF - Tagged Image File Format. A graphics and page layout file format for desktop computers. Used as an intermediary file format for both color and black and white images. TIFF is used to transfer documents between different applications and computer platforms.

Tile - A method used when a page is too large to be output in its entirety by the output device. The page is divided into pieces that allow for overlap so that it can be reassembled as a whole.

Tint - A solid color reduced either by screening or by adding white ink. Also, a halftone of a specified dot percentage, but less than 100%.

Tissue Overlay - A thin, translucent paper placed over artwork (mostly mechanicals) for protection and used to indicate color breaks and corrections.

Tonal Compression - The reduction of an original’s tonal range to a tonal range achievable through the reproduction process.

Tonal Range - The difference between the brightest and the darkest tone in a photograph or offset lithographic print.

Tone - The character of a color, its quality or lightness.

Toolbar - Onscreen bar that displays various icons or formatting choices.

Tooth - A characteristic of paper, a slightly rough finish, which permits it to take ink readily.

Total Quality Management (TQM) - A management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction; TQM is based on the participation of all members of an organization to continuously improve processes, products, services and the company culture.

Touch Plate - Adds a special color, or accents a color within a specific image area, for reaching optimal color match. Commonly used to achieve bright reds.

Tracking - Adjustment of spacing between characters and words.

Trade Shop - Service bureau, printer or bindery working primarily for other graphic arts professionals, not for the general public.

Traditional Color Angles - The screen angles used most often in color separation, considered to be optimal for reducing moire patterns-yellow at 0°, cyan at 15°, black at 45° and magenta at 75°.

Transparency - Positive photographic image on film allowing light to pass through.

Transparent Ink - A printing ink which does not conceal the color beneath. Process inks are transparent so that they will blend to form other colors.

Transpose - To exchange the position of a letter, word or line with another letter, work or line.

Trapping - A method of overlapping adjoining colors or inks that helps minimize the possibility of a fine white line appearing between two colors, caused by misregistration of color negatives. Also, the ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink.

Trim - To cut the excess paper from the edges of a publication after it has been printed and bound.

Trim Marks - Marks on the outside of a keyline to indicate where the piece is to be cut.

TrueType Fonts - Standard, scalable, outline fonts used by Apple and Microsoft that can be used for display or printing. TrueType standards enable applications and the files they produce to work well in a cross-platform environment and across applications.

Two-up - Having two images of each item (see one-up).

Type 1 Fonts - Early PostScript fonts that offered improved versatility over fixed-font technology.

Typeface - A distinctive shape and design of type that makes a collection of letter recognizable. Typefaces are identified by name such as Times Roman, Helvetica, Palatino, and Century Schoolbook.

Typesetting - Composing type into words and lines in accordance with the manuscript and typographic specifications.

Typography - The art and craft of creating and/or setting type professionally.

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Uncoated Paper - Paper that has not been coated with clay.

Undercolor Addition (UCA) - A technique used to add cyan, magenta and yellow printing dots in dark neutral areas of the reproduction to give them more density.

Undercolor Removal (UCR) - The technique of reducing the cyan, magenta and yellow content in neutral areas of the reproduction and replacing them with black ink so the reproduction will appear normal but will use less ink.

Unit - One inking, plate and impression station on a press. A four-color press has four units.

Up - In printing, two-up, three-up, etc., refers to imposition of material to be printed on a larger size sheet to take advantage of full press capacity.

URL - The Uniform Resource Locator is the address of a page on the Web.

USM - Un-Sharp Masking. A process used to sharpen images by exaggerating neighboring light and dark pixels.

UV Coating - Liquid applied to a printed sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.

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Vacuum Frame - A device that holds film or plates in place by withdrawing air through small holes in a rubber supporting surface.

Value - The degree in a color or gray that varies from light to dark.

Varnish - A thin, protective liquid coating applied to the printed sheet for protection or appearance.

Vector - Mathematical descriptions of images and their placement.

Vehicle - The liquid component of a printing ink.

Velox - This is the brand name for a screened print of a photo which is pasted on the keyline; thus showing exactly how it will look when printed.

Verso Page - The left-hand or even-numbered page of an open book or spread.

Vignette - An illustration in which the background fades gradually away until it blends into the unprinted paper.

Virgin Paper - Paper made exclusively of new pulp from trees or cotton. No recycled materials are included.

Visible Spectrum - That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to which the human eye is sensitive; wavelengths of approximately 400 through 700 nanometers. Because of the characteristics of cone sensing (color-reading mechanism of the retina), it is generally agreed that humans detect only red, green, and blue. All perceived colors are combinations of those sensitivities (hue) in relation to the strength of the transmitted or reflected light (brightness) and the intensity of the light hitting the retina (saturation). Ultraviolet wavelengths are shorter and infrared wavelengths are longer than the sensitivity range of the eye and are invisible as a result.

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Washup - The process of cleaning the rollers, form or place and fountain of a press with solvents to remove ink as required after a day’s run, or during a run for ink color changes.

Waterless Lithography Sheetfed - Water-free offset lithographic capability on a sheetfed press that allows ultrafine reproduction and improved, almost continuous-looking halftones.

Waterless Lithography Web - Water-free offset lithographic capability on a web press that allows ultrafine reproduction and improved, almost continuous-looking halftones.

Watermark - Translucent logo in paper created during manufacture by slight embossing while paper is still approximately 90 percent water.

Web - A roll of paper used in web or rotary printing.

Web Press - A printing press that prints on paper from a continuous roll and outputs it onto another roll, as a folded signature or as cut sheets.

White Light - Theoretically, light that emits all wavelengths of the visible spectrum at uniform intensity. In reality, most light sources cannot achieve such perfection.

Whois - A command to find the who behind the .com, .org, or .net. the whois program lets you access a database of registered domain names.

Widow - A single word in a line by itself, ending a paragraph, or starting a page, frowned upon in good typography.

Wire Side - The side of a sheet next to the wire in paper manufacturing; opposite the felt or top side.

With the Grain - Folding or feeding paper into a press parallel to the grain of the paper.

Word Processor - A personal computer and special software program or dedicated electronic equipment used to create, store, retrieve and edit text.

Work and Tumble - To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from gripper to back using the same side guide and plate to print the second side.

Work and Turn - To print one side of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from left to right and print the second side. The same gripper and plate are used for printing both sides.

Worm - Known primarily as a virus, a worm is a computer program that can replicate itself. It is also referred to as a program used by search engines to locate and index information on the Web.

WORM - Write once/read many. It refers to the permanent, unalterable nature of data in certain kinds of storage media.

Wrong Reading - An image that is backwards when compared to the original.

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Xerography - An electrostatic nonimpact printing process in which heat fuses dry ink toner particles in electrically charged areas of the substrate, forming a permanent image. The charged areas of the substrate appear dark on the reproduction, while uncharged areas remain white.

X-Height - The height of lowercase letters in a font (not including ascenders or descenders).

XML - eXtensible Markup Language is designed especially for Web documents. It enables Web authors and designers to create their own customized tags to provide functionality not available with HTML.

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Yellow - One of the three subtractive primary colors used in process printing.

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Zoom - An electronic function that increases or reduces the magnification of the image displayed on the video screen.

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