the heck is DPI?”
is a very technical and complex process. Although we
make it look easy, it sometimes takes alot of know-how
to get your job to look perfect. That's why we're providing
you with this handy glossary of the terms that we use
for your reference.
A4 - ISO paper size 210 mm x 297 mm
used for letterhead.
Access - A noun indicating the ability
to log on to the Internet or another network.
Accordian Fold - A bindery term for
two or more parallel folds that open like an accordion.
Brochures and maps often use accordion folds.
Achromatic - Having no color or hue.
Actinic Light - Light that exposes
a coating or emulsion.
Additive Color Theory - The mixture
of red, green and blue light, the primary colors of
light, to produce white light.
Adhesive Binding - Applying a glue
or another, usually hot-melt, substance along the backbone
edges of assembled, printed sheets; the book or magazine
cover is applied directly on top of the tacky adhesive.
Against the Grain - At right angles
to the direction of the grain of the paper.
Airbrush - A function of a color imaging
system to add or remove printing ink of any value in
a designated picture area.
Aliasing - A "staircase"
or jagged effect that occurs when display resolution
is too coarse to minimize the broken or crooked appearance
of certain electronic design elements. Aliasing is more
visually pronounced in diagonal lines, curves and circles.
Alkaline Paper - A stable, acid-free
paper used for products that must resist deterioration
and preserve their images for as long as possible. Archival
photographs, high-quality books, and fine art prints
are made on alkaline paper.
Alteration - Any change made by the
customer after copy or artwork has been given to the
service bureau, separator or printer. The change could
be in copy, specifications, or both. Also called AA,
author alteration or customer alteration.
Amberlith - The orange or red acetate
material that artists cut into elements or shapes to
put on areas of keylines indicating where halftones,
tints, etc., are to be positioned. Also called rubylith.
Analog - Of a circuit or device having
an output that is proportional to the input. Not binary.
Analog Workflow - Traditional workflow
that relies heavily on film and photosensitive materials
Anilox - This inking system is commonly
used in flexographic presses. An elastomer-covered fountain
roller runs in the ink pan and is adjustable against
a contacting, engraved metering roll. Ink is flooded
into the engraved cells of the metering roll, excess
is doctored off by the wiping or squeezing action of
the fountain roll or a doctor blade, and that which
remains beneath the surface of the metering roll is
transferred to the printing plates.
Anti-offset Powder - Finely powdered
starch sprayed on the printed surface of coated paper
as sheets leave the press to prevent wet ink from transferring
from the top of one sheet to the bottom of the next
Application Files - The files that
contain the data created by software programs; also
called data files.
Aqueous Coating - Water-based coating
applied like ink by a printing press to protect and
enhance the printed surface.
Artwork - All original copy, including
type, photos and illustrations intended for printing.
Also called art.
Ascender - The part of a lower case
letter which rises above the main body, as in "b"
ASCII - Acronym for American Standard
Code for Information Interchange, the international
standard codes that are used by most computers to symbolize
letters, numbers, punctuation and certain special commands.
Automatic Picture Replacement (APR) -
Scitex's implementation of the process in which a low
resolution image is automatically replaced by the high
resolution version of the image.
Automatic Plate Changing - Presses
equipped with automatic plate changing capability.
Back Up - In printing, to print the
second side of a sheet already printed on one side.
In computers, to make a copy of your work on a separate
disk in case something happens to the original.
Bandwidth - The capacity of a network
to carry data, usually expressed in bits per second
Baseline - An imaginary line that
letters and numbers sit on.
Basic Size - 25" x 38" for
book papers, 20" x 26" for cover papers, 22"
x 28" or 22" x 35" for bristols, 25"
x 30" for index.
Basis Weight - Weight in pounds of
a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard
size for that grade; example: 500 sheets of 17"
x 22" 20 lb. bond paper weighs 20 pounds. In countries
using ISO paper sizes the weight, in grams, of one square
meter of paper.
Baud - A speed of data transmission,
pronounced "bod." Today, modems measured in
baud are relics.
Bearers - The flat surfaces or rings
at the ends of press cylinders that come in contact
with each other during printing and serve as a basis
for determining packing thickness.
Binary - A number representation consisting
of zeros and ones used by practically all computers
because of its ease of implementation using digital
electronics. A file encoding with representation of
text and graphics.
Binder’s Creep - The slight
but cumulative extension of the edges of each inserted
spread or signature beyond the edges of the one that
encloses it in a saddle-stitch bind.
Binding - The fastening of the assembled
sheets or signatures along one edge of a publication.
Bit - Binary Digit. The smallest unit
of information in a computer, a 1 or 0. It can define
two conditions; on or off.
Bitmap - An image represented by an
array of picture elements, each of which is encoded
as a single binary digit.
Blanket - In offset printing, a rubber-surfaced
fabric that is clamped around a cylinder. The image
is transferred from the plate to the blanket and from
there transferred to the paper.
Blanket Cylinder - The cylinder that
carries the offset rubber blanket, placing it in contact
with the inked image on the plate cylinder and then
transferring the inked image to the paper carried by
the impression cylinder.
Bleed - Printed image which extends
beyond the trim edge of the sheet or page.
Blind Image - Image that is debossed,
embossed or stamped, but not printed with ink or foil.
Blind Folio - Page numbers are not
printed on the page.
Blocking - Sticking together of printed
sheets causing damage when the surfaces are separated.
Blueline - Prepress photographic proof
made from stripped negatives where all colors show as
shades of a single color on white paper. Also called
brownline, silverprint, Dylux®.
Bond Paper - A grade of writing or
printing paper where strength, durability and performance
are essential requirements; used for letterheads, business
forms, etc. The basic size is 17" x 22" .
Book Paper - A general term for coated
and uncoated paper. The basic size is 25" x 38"
Boolean - Based on the case-sensitive
operators AND, OR, and NOT - serves as the basis of
machine intelligence and, hence, computer searches.
Bottling - The process of skewing
pages to compensate for paper thickness as it is folded.
Primarily used on signatures designed for large web
or large sheetfed presses.
Break for Color - In artwork and composition,
to separate the parts to be printed in different colors.
Brick-and-mortar - Located or serving
consumers in a physical facility as distinct from providing
remote, especially online, services.
Brightness - In paper, the reflectance
or brilliance of the paper.
Bristol - Type of board paper used
for post cards, business cards and other heavy-use products.
Bronzing - Printing with a sizing
ink and then applying bronze powder while still wet
to produce a metallic luster.
Buckle Folder - A bindery machine
in which two rollers push the sheet between two metal
plates, stopping it and causing it to buckle at the
entrance to the folder. A third roller working with
one of the original rollers uses the buckle to fold
Bump - Ink applied from a fifth or
higher plate in four-color process printing, usually
to strengthen a specific color; also referred to as
Burn - Exposure of a plate to light
through a negative to create an image for printing.
Burnish - The term used to describe
the rubbing down and securing of copy to a keyline.
Burnthrough - Condition existing when
enough light penetrates a masking sheet to expose the
film or plate beneath the sheet. Masking sheeting should
prevent light from penetrating to the film, but accumulated
exposures—as in step-and-repeat exposures—sometimes
sensitize the film, causing burnthrough.
Butt Register - Register where ink
colors meet precisely without overlapping or allowing
space between. Also called butt fit and kiss register.
Byte - A measurement unit equal to
8 bits of digital information. The standard measurement
unit of file size. See also kilobyte, megabyte, and
C1S - A trade abbreviation for coated
1 (one) side. Card stock used for post cards and fliers
or cast-coated sheets often used for covers are coated
on one side only.
Calender - To make the surface of
paper smooth by pressing it between rollers during manufacturing.
Calibration - A process by which a
scanner, monitor or output device is adjusted to provide
a more accurate display and reproduction of images.
Caliper - The thickness of paper,
usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (mils).
Also, a device on a sheetfed press that detects double
sheets or on a binding machine that detects missing
signatures or inserts.
Camera-Ready - Copy and all other
printing elements are ready for photography.
Card Stock - Also called cover stock.
A stiff paper often used for post cards, catalog covers
and other items that require rigidity. Card stock is
usually described by point sizes that give the thickness
of the sheet in thousandths of inches. For example,
10-pt card is 0.010 inch thick. Card stock can also
be described by pound weights based on the weight of
500 sheets measuring 20 inches by 26 inches each.
Case Bind - To bind using glue to
hold signatures to a case made of binder board covered
with fabric, plastic or leather. Also called cloth edition,
hard bind or hard cover.
Cast Coated Paper - Paper dried under
pressure against a heated, polished cylinder to produce
a high-gloss enamel finish.
CD-ROM - Compact disk–read only
memory. A laser encoded optical storage disk that can
store 650 megabytes to over 1 gigabyte.
Centimeter - Metric measurement of
length. 2.54 centimeters = 1 inch.
CEPS - Color Electronic Prepress System.
Chalking - Refers to improper drying
of ink. Pigments dust off because ink has been absorbed
too rapidly into the paper.
Chill Rolls - On a web offset press,
the section located after the drying oven where heatset
inks are cooled below their setting temperature.
Choke - A slight size reduction of
an opening into which an image will print.
Chopper Fold - Conveying a signature
from the first parallel fold in a horizontal plane,
spine forward, until it passes under a reciprocating
blade that forces it down between folding rollers to
complete the fold.
Chroma - The attribute of color that
specifies its amount of saturation or strength.
Chrome - A slang term meaning the
color transparency used as the original copy.
CIE - International Commission on
Illumination. A standards institute most well known
in the graphic arts for its work in color space definition.
Cloning - A function on a CEPS used
to duplicate a pixel or many pixels in another area
of a picture. It can be used to add or remove detail.
Some manufacturers call this function " pixel swopping."
CMS - Color Management System. This
ensures color uniformity across input and output devices
so that final printed results match originals. The characteristics
or profiles of devices are normally established by reference
to standard color targets.
CMYK - Abbreviation for cyan, magenta,
yellow and key (black), the four process colors.
Coated Paper - Paper with a coating
of clay or other substances that improves reflectivity
and ink holdout.
Coating - An unbroken, clear film
applied to a substrate in layers to protect and seal
it, or to make it glossy.
Collate - In binding, the gathering
of sheets or signatures.
Color Balance - Maintaining the ratio
of cyan, magenta and yellow ink to produce a picture
with the desired color and without an unwanted color
cast or color bias.
Color Bars - The color strip on proofs
that is used as a guide for the printer in determining
the amount and density of ink needed.
Color Cast - Discoloration of an entire
image or portion of an image caused by an overabundance
of one color.
Color Correction - The deliberate
adjustment of one or more colors to achieve a desired
result. With inks, process colors are not pure colors;
each is contaminated with the other two colors and has
a hue error that requires compensation in the separation
Color Electronic Prepress Systems (desktop)
- Computer systems using microcomputers and software
for high-quality color manipulation and preparation.
Color Electronic Prepress Systems (high-end)
- Dedicated computer work stations and systems designed
exclusively for highest-quality color manipulation and
Color Fidelity - How well a printed
piece matches the original.
Color Gamut - The range of colors
that can be formed by all combinations of a given set
of light sources or colorants of a color reproduction
system. The normal human eye can perceive a wide gamut
of colors – colors within the full range of the
visible spectrum, including detail in very bright light
and deep shadows. Transparencies and monitors, which
display color using transmitted light, can hold some
of that color range, or gamut. Because of such limitations
as reflected light, ink impurities and paper absorption,
a conventionally printed image is limited to a much
smaller range of colors. Much of the work done in color
correction arises from the tonal compression of the
color gamut that occurs during the color separation
Color Key™ - 3M’s negative
overlay proofing films which visually simulate process
Color Management Systems - Electronic
characterization, calibration and control systems that
help to assure color consistency and accuracy throughout
the print production process from scanning through previewing
on screen and proofing to reproduction on press.
Color Proof - A visual impression
of the expected final reproduction produced on a substrate
with inks, pigments or dyes. 3M Match Print™,
DuPont Cromacheck® and Kodak Double Check® are
examples of color proofing systems.
Color Reference - A set of process
inks printed on standard paper and used for color control.
Color Scanner - An electronic piece
of equipment that utilizes a laser or other high intensity
light to make color separation negatives from either
reflective prints or transparencies.
Color Separations - The four-color
negatives or positives which are the result of changing
full color photos or art into the four process colors
(yellow, magenta, cyan and black) by the use of filters.
Color Sequence - The order in which
the four-color process inks are printed on the plate.
Color Specification System - Charts
or swatches of preprinted color patches of blended inks,
each with a corresponding number, used to allow designers,
printers and customers to communicate color with more
Colorimeter - An instrument for measuring
color the way the eye sees it.
Comb Bind - To bind by inserting the
teeth of a flexible plastic comb through holes punched
along the edge of a stack of paper.
Combination Folder - A bindery machine
or in-line finishing component of a web press that incorporates
the characteristic of knife and buckle folders.
Composite Art - Mechanical on which
copy for reproduction in all colors appears on only
one surface, not separated into overlays. A tissue overlay
is used to indicate color breaks.
Composite File - A PostScript file
that represents color pages containing picture elements
specified in terms of RGB (red, green and blue) color
space as opposed to black and white " gray level"
pages which represent separations.
Composite Proofs - Single test sheet
showing position and color of all elements as stripped
Comprehensive - A detailed dummy or
sketch of a design, intended to give a clear sense of
how the finished piece should look.
Compression - The reduction in memory
of an image file. See also lossy and non-lossy.
Computer-to-plate (C2P) - Describes
a system in which the use of desktop publishing software,
electronic prepress workstations and platesetters allows
the imaging of metal plates for any format of press
without the use of film, stripping or traditional platemaking.
This process results in lower costs while shortening
the amount of time needed to get a job on the press.
Also called C2P to distinguish it from CTP (computer-to-press).
Computer-to-plate (metal) - Producing
metal plates directly from digital files without producing
a set of film negatives.
Computer-to-plate (polyester) - Producing
polyester plates directly from digital files without
producing a set of film negatives.
Computer-to-press (CTP) - Describes
a printing system that includes desktop publishing software,
electronic prepress workstations and a new type of press
which is capable of rapidly changing the images it is
printing without the use of removable plates. Sometimes
called CTP, to distinguish it from C2P, or computer-to-plate.
Concept Creation - Selecting images
and generating and approving ideas from thumbnails and
rough layouts during the graphic design process.
Condensed Type - Type whose width
has been reduced without affecting its height.
Condition - To keep paper in the pressroom
for a few hours or days before printing so that its
moisture level and temperature equal that in the pressroom.
Contact Print - A photographic print
made from a negative or positive in contact with a sensitized
paper, film or printing plate.
Content Proof - A proof that shows
the customer the correct text and position of image
elements but does not necessarily show accurate color
Continuous Tones - Commonly identified
as the film for the four colors of a separation before
it is broken into dots.
Continuous-Tone Digital Proofing -
Producing a proof with reliable color but no halftone
pattern (photorealistic) directly from a digital file,
usually by inkjet or dye sublimination process, without
producing a set of film negatives.
Contract Proof - A proof, usually
in color, that, when approved by the print buyer, constitutes
a contractual obligation with the printer to purchase
the printed materials that match the proof.
Contrast - The amount of difference
between the lightest and the darkest areas in a photo
Conventional Dot - A halftone dot
with the classic square format: middle tone dots are
square, while the extremely small black dots or white
openings are round.
Cookie - A collection of information,
usually including a username and the current date and
time, stored on the local computer of a person using
the World Wide Web, used chiefly by Web sites to identify
users who have previously registered or visited the
Copy - Original job material (paste-ups,
film, photos and other graphics) furnished for the print
Coverage - The amount of ink on a
page or sheet, usually given in percentages.
Crash - Coarse cloth embedded in the
glue along the spine of a book to increase strength
Creep - The shifting position of the
page in a saddle-stitched bind. Creep moves the inside
pages or signatures away from the spine.
CREF - Computer-ready electronic files.
Cromacheck® - DuPont’s negative
overlay color proof.
Cromalin® - DuPont’s one
piece proofing system in both positive and negative
Crop - To eliminate portions of copy
or a photograph.
Crop Marks - Symbols placed in the
margin outside the image area that indicate to the printer
and bindery the area to be printed and/or trimmed from
Cross Direction - In paper, the direction
across the grain. Paper is weaker and more sensitive
to humidity in its cross direction.
Crossover - A reproduction that extends
across two facing pages in a book or magazine and crosses
over the binding.
CT - Acronym for Continuous Tone.
An image or photo, usually scanned or input from a digital
CTP - Computer-to-press.
Cure - To dry inks, varnishes or other
coatings after printing to ensure good adhesion and
Curl - The distortion of paper due
to differences in structure or coatings from one side
to the other or from absorption of moisture on the press.
Cutoff - Circumference of the impression
cylinder of a web press, therefore, the length of the
printed sheet on roll to sheet presses or the length
of the repeat pattern on roll to roll presses.
Cyan - One of the three subtractive
primary colors used in process printing. It is commonly
known as " process blue."
Cylinder - Part of a system of large
rollers on an offset lithography press. The plate cylinder
transfers an image onto the blanket cylinder, which
is then offset onto a press sheet passing between the
blanket and impression cylinders.
Dampening - Moistening non-image areas
of lithographic plates with water-covered rollers.
Dampening System - The mechanism on
a press for transferring fountain solution to the plate.
Data Shift - In process color printing,
it describes a shift in one of the channels of data
that comprise the image file and could cause inconsistent
color in some areas in the image.
DCS - Desktop Color Separation. A
set of four color-separated EPS images, with a fifth
file that coordinates the four and provides a preview
Deboss - To press an image into paper
so it lies below the surface.
Deckel Edge - The untrimmed feathery
edges of paper formed where the pulp flows against the
wire of a paper making machine.
Delivery - (1) The section of a printing
press that receives, jogs and stacks the printed sheet.
(2) The output end of bindery equipment.
Densitometer - Instrument used to
measure density. Reflection densitometers measure light
reflected from paper and other surfaces. Transmission
densitometers measure light transmitted through film
and other materials.
Density - The amount an object absorbs
or reflects light is called " density level."
High-density objects absorb or stop light; low-density
objects reflect or transmit light.
Descender - The part of a lower case
letter which extends below the main body, as in "
Desensitizer - Chemical agent used
to make non-image areas of a printing plate repellent
Desktop Black and White Scanners -
Used to make black and white negatives or positives
of images or line art.
Desktop Publishing - The creation
of fully composed pages with all text and graphics in
place on a system that includes a personal computer
with a color monitor; word processing, page layout,
illustration and other off-the-shelf software; digitized
type fonts; a laser printer; and other peripherals,
such as an optical image scanner. Completely paginated
films are output from an imagesetter.
Desktop Publishing Stripping - Electronic
assembly of all elements in final imposition for direct
output as composite negative or plate.
Detail Enhancement - The technique
of exaggerating picture image edges with unsharp masking
or peaking, so the observer can easily see the detail
of the original in the final reproduction.
Die - Device for cutting, scoring,
stamping, embossing or debossing.
Diecutting - Using sharp steel rules
to cut special shapes from printed sheets. Diecutting
can be done on either flatbed or rotary presses.
Die Stamping - Printing from lettering
or other designs engraved into copper or steel. Also
called the intaglio process, it is used for the production
of letterheads, business cards, etc.
Digital Asset Management - File or
asset storage and retrieval by a company for its customer.
Digital Camera - A photographic system
that transforms visual information into pixels that
are assigned binary codes so that they can be manipulated,
compressed and stored or transmitted as electronic files.
Digital Photography - Direct electronic
capture of an image within a camera without using film
Digital Plates - High speed or spark
discharge plates that can be exposed by digital data
from a prepress system.
Digital Printing - Printing by plateless
imaging systems that are imaged by digital data from
Digital Soft Proof - A color video
monitor display of a picture file, data file or text
Digital Workflow - Workflow that relies
on electronic processes that eliminate the need for
traditional film materials.
Digitized Information - Text, photographs
and illustrations converted into digital signals for
input, processing and output in an electronic publishing
Dimensional Stability - Ability of
a film to hold size throughout its cycle of use. Polyester-based
films are more dimensionally stable than acetate bases;
glass is more stable than polyester.
Direct Digital Color Proof (DDCP) -
A proof made directly from the stored data file onto
a substrate using a peripheral device such as a photographic
exposure, dot matrix printer or ink jet printer without
producing intermediate films.
Direct Screen - The method of color
separating which adds dots at the same time the transparency
is being photographically separated into the four colors.
Direct-to-plate - Often used as a
synonym for computer-to-plate but less desirable to
use because the acronym DTP can be confused with desktop
publishing, which is also known as DTP (see computer-to-plate).
Direct-to-press Imaging - Unimaged
plates are automatically mounted on the plate cylinder
and then imaged with laser beams from digital data.
Display Font - A font designed for
computer screen display as opposed to use with a printer.
A few years ago most applications required two font
sets, one for screen display and one for the printer.
Today, this process is mostly transparent to the user
since printers and displays support the same font set,
or the application makes the conversion from screen
to printer font automatically.
Dither - To fill the gap between two
pixels with another pixel having an average value of
the two to minimize the difference or add detail to
smooth the result.
DMax - The point of maximum density
in an image or original.
DMin - The point of minimum density
in an image or original.
Dot - The individual element of a
Dot Area - The size of the dot is
indicated by the percentage of the area it occupies
from zero to one hundred percent.
Dot Etching - Applying chemicals by
hand to either negatives for increasing dot size which
adds color; or, to positives for decreasing dot size
which subtracts color.
Dot Gain - The increase in the printing
dot size from the halftone film to the printed substrate
resulting in darker tones.
Dots Per Inch (DPI) - Measurement
of the resolution of output devices such as monitors,
laser printers, and imagesetters. The more dots the
device is able to print to the inch, the better it is
able to faithfully reproduce the desired text or image.
Double Black Duotones - Image created
from two halftones, one for highlights and the other
for midtones and shadows. Both plates are inked with
black for the most contrast.
Double Burn - Utilizing two or more
negatives to expose an image on a plate or positive
Down-Sampling - The reduction in resolution
of an image, necessitating a loss in detail.
Drawdown - Sample of inks specified
for a job applied to the substrate specified for a job.
Drier - A substance added to ink to
Drop Cap - A paragraph format where
the first character of the first word is 3x the height
of the body copy.
Drop Out - The technique that can
give a mediocre photo greater contrast by photographically
removing some dots to create highlights that show the
actual white of the paper.
Drum - The common name for the photoconductive
cylinders used on scanners and plotters.
Drum Scanner - Color separation equipment
on which the original transparency is wrapped around
a hollow, plastic rotary cylinder.
Dryer - A unit on a web press that
hardens the heatset ink by evaporating the solvent ingredient
Dummy - A layout showing the size,
shape, form and general style of a piece of printing.
Duotone - Two films are made by changing
the screen angle for each and one plate is made for
each film. A duotone is printed in two colors but both
plates can be used for the same color ink for maximum
contrast. When using black ink this is called a "
Duplex Paper - Paper with a different
color or finish on each side.
Dye-sublimation Printer - A printer
technology that produces high-quality color images through
a heat-transfer process.
Dylux® - DuPont’s light-sensitive
proof in blue or black.
Dynamically-generated Pages - Web
pages, birthed at the time they are downloaded, often
contain up-to-the-second data pulled into a template.
Search engine results pages are dynamically generated.
Easter Egg - A small cartoon, animation,
or other feature hidden by a programmer in the code
of a game or application and triggered by an arcane
sequence of keystrokes or mouse clicks.
Electronic Dot Generation - Method
of producing halftones electronically on scanners and
Electronic Printing, Black or Spot Color
- Technology that reproduces pages in black or black
plus spot (highlight) colors directly from a computer
file without negatives, plates, etc., typically using
electrostatic or electrophotographic processes.
Electronic Printing, Full-color -
Technology that reproduces pages in process colors directly
from a computer file without negatives, plates, etc.,
typically using electrostatic or electrophotographic
Electronic Publishing - A configuration
of hardware and software used for digital page composition.
The term includes desktop publishing and high-end systems.
Electrophotography - Image transfer
system used in copiers to produce images using electrostatic
Elliptical Dot - An elongated or oval
halftone dot used to minimize the midtone jump in dot
gain at the point where dots are large enough to connect.
Em - A measure of space exactly as
high and wide as the point size of the typeface being
Em Dash - A dash, one em long, used
to separate parenthetical phrases within a sentence.
Emboss - To press an image into paper
so it lies above the surface.
Emoticons - A series of keyed characters
used especially in e-mail to indicate an emotion, such
as pleasure [:-)] or sadness [:-(].
Emulsion - The light-sensitive coating
on photographic film, plates or stencils.
En - A measure of space equal to one-half
of an em space in the same point size and typeface.
En Dash - A dash, one en long, used
to indicate range as in " see pages 4–5."
Enamel - A term applied to a coated
paper or to a coating material on a paper.
Encryption - To alter (a file, for
example) using a secret code so as to be unintelligible
to unauthorized parties.
End Sheet - Sheet that attaches the
inside pages of a case bound book to its cover.
Engraved Cylinder - An image carrier
with recessed image areas that are filled with ink,
which is then transferred to the substrate. Engraved,
or intaglio, cylinders are often used in the gravure
Engraving - Printing method using
a plate, also called a die, with an image cut into its
Enhanced Multi-color (" High-fidelity"
) Printing - Full-color printing using six,
seven or more " process" colors instead of
the traditional four.
EPS - Encapsulated PostScript File.
A file format used to transfer PostScript image information
from one program to another.
Estimate - A statement of what a print
job will probably cost based on specified quantities,
materials and labor.
Estimating - The process of determining
approximate cost, specifying required quality and quantity,
and projecting waste.
- Reduced-chemical, silver-and VOC-free processes for
preparation of printed materials.
Etch - To use chemicals to carve an
image into plates and film or an acid solution used
to desensitize the non-printing areas of the plate.
Ethernet - A type of networking technology
for local area networks; originally developed by Xerox
Corporation; coaxial cable carries radio frequency signals
between computers at a rate of 10 megabits per second.
Exposure - The quantity of light that
is allowed to act on a photographic material. The product
of the intensity and the duration of the light acting
on the emulsions.
Face - Edge of a bound publication
opposite the spine.
Fake Duotone - A two color image consisting
of one channel printing a halftone image, while a flat
tint overprints in the second color.
Fanout - Distortion of paper on the
press due to waviness in the paper caused by absorption
of moisture at the edges of the paper, particularly
across the grain.
FAQ - Frequently-asked-questions.
Feeder - The part of the press that
separates the sheets of paper and feeds them into position
Felt Side - The smoother side of the
Fifth Color - Non-process or premixed
ink color used in addition to the four process colors.
File Format - A set of instructions
that describe how to store, access or transmit digital
information. Being able to match the format of data
created in one program to what can be received by another
is the basis for file compatibility.
File Server - A networked computer
system used to store common files in such a way that
all or only designated users and applications can access
Filler - Inorganic materials like
clay, titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, and other
white pigments added to the papermaking finish to improve
opacity, brightness, and the overall printing surface.
Fill-up - Occurs when ink fills the
area between the halftone dots or plugs of the type.
Film Assembly - Positioning, mounting
and securing various individual films to one carrier
sheet in preparation for platemaking.
Fine Paper - Paper made specifically
for writing or commercial printing, as opposed to coarse
paper and industrial paper.
Fingerprint - To test a printing press
to determine its exact printing characteristics, such
as its dot gain, ink density and trapping, for the purpose
of customizing color separations for those printing
Finish - General term for trimming,
folding, binding and all other post-press operations.
Also refers to the surface characteristics of paper.
Firewall - A hardware and software
device that manages and limits access to certain network
segments. Firewalls are used with local area networks
(LAN) that are connected to the Internet, for example.
The firewall limits what data can be retrieved from
the Internet by LAN users and even what locations on
the internet are accessible by users of LAN-based computers.
FireWire - A high-speed data bus.
Firewire is particularly well suited to desktop video
and audio applications, but hard disks and other devices
also are starting to use this interface.
Flat - The assembled composite of
negatives or positives ready for platemaking. Also,
a term used to describe a photograph that is lacking
Flatbed Scanner - A color scanner
on which the original is mounted on a horizontal table
instead of a rotary drum.
Flat Colors - Colors and tints that
are not formulated from standard process colors. Also,
color that seems weak or lifeless.
Flexography - A printing process that
uses a raised surface of flexible rubber or photopolymer
printing plate mounted on a rotary drum and thin, fast-drying
inks to print on almost any roll stock.
Flop - Reversing a transparency or
negative so that what was on the right side is now on
Fluorescence - The ability of a substance,
such as paper or ink, to absorb ultraviolet light waves
and reflect them as visible light.
Flush Cover - A cover trimmed to the
same size as the inside text pages.
Fly Leaf - The half of the end sheets
not glued to the front and back covers of a case bound
Flying Paster - An automatic pasting
device that splices a new roll of paper onto an expiring
roll without stopping the web press.
Foil Stamp - To press a heated die
onto a sheet of foil, releasing the foil from its backing
and adhering it to a substrate.
Folio - In typesetting, the typeset
page number. Right hand pages contain the odd number
Fold - Bending and creasing a sheet
of paper as required to form a printed product.
Font - A complete set of type characters
in one typeface and type size.
Font Baseline - In printing, the line
on which letters rest: characters g, j, p, q, and y
descend below the baseline.
Font Cap Height - In printing, the
height of the capital letters in a given typeface measured
from the baseline.
Font Families - A font is one size
and face of type. Electronic systems can create a family
of characters from a single computerized font.
Font Kerning - The process of fitting
adjacent characters together to use space efficiently
and to produce attractive lines of text. Kerned characters
nest together, and move under the rise of an adjacent
letter, r, for example. The letter j can fit close to
a preceding letter d, but the letter d can't move especially
close to a preceding letter o.
Font Substitution - The process of
choosing a print or display font that is close, but
not the same as the specified font in a document or
application. Applications substitute fonts when the
precise font used in the loaded document or file is
not installed. Font substitution can produce documents
that are almost indistinguishable from the original,
or documents that are wildly different, depending on
the original font and what fonts are available for substitution.
Foot - The bottom of a page or book.
Foot Margin (also tail margin) - The
distance between the bottom edge of the body of type
(text) on a page and the bottom edge of the trimmed
Format - Size, shape and design of
a printed piece.
Form - Each side of a signature.
Form Roller - A roller which comes
in contact with the printing plate, bringing it water
For Position Only (FPO) - Refers to
inferior quality copies of photos or art used on mechanicals
to indicate placement and scaling, but not intended
Fountain Solution - A mixture of water
and chemicals that dampens a printing plate to prevent
ink from adhering to the non-image areas.
Four-color Process - Use of cyan,
magenta, yellow and black to create a full color image.
Free Sheet - Paper made from cooked
wood fibers mixed with chemicals and washed free of
Frequency - The lines per inch (lpi)
in a halftone screen.
Frequency-modulated Screening - See
Front End System - The computer hardware
on which application software used to prepare pages
of type and graphics is run.
FTP - File Transfer Protocol is the
language computers speak to transfer files between systems
over the Internet.
Fulfillment - The storing of a customer’s
materials until that customer requests delivery to itself
or to a third party. Also, the fulfilling by a vendor
of a request received from a customer by phone, by mail
or by electronic means. Also known as " pick and
Full-scale Black - A black printer
separation that prints dots in every part of the picture,
from the highlight to the shadow. Also called full-range
Full-size Color Scanners - "
Traditional" large format, drum type " high
end" scanners used to bring color prints or negatives
into a computer for manipulation, separation or printing.
Fuzz - Fibers projecting from the
surface of a sheet of paper.
Galley Proof - A printout of text
used for proofreading before final page assembly.
Gamma - (1) In photography, the degree
of contrast in an image. Film types are listed as creating
certain gamma ranges appropriate to different uses.
(2) In electronic color correction the difference in
the status of the color curve. The color curve represents
highlight to shadow values between current values and
corrected values. Changing the color curve (making a
gamma correction) increases or decreases the highlights,
midtones, and shadows relative to the original points
on the curve.
Gang - To halftone or separate more
than one image in only one exposure. Also to print two
or more finished products on the same sheet during one
Gapless Press - A web press with special
blanket cylinders that, with each rotation, allow more
printing per square inch. This larger print space plus
a shorter cutoff point can save a significant amount
of paper on large runs.
Gateway - Software or hardware that
enables communication between computer networks that
use different communications protocols. Also called
Gather - To assemble folded signatures
in proper sequence.
Gear Streaks - Parallel streaks appearing
across the printed sheet at the same interval as the
gear teeth on the cylinder.
Ghosting - Phenomenon of a faint image
on a printed sheet where it was not intended to appear.
GIF - The Graphic Interchange Format
is a compression format for images. Pictures and graphics
you see on Web pages are usually in GIF format because
the files are small and download quickly.
Gigabyte (GB) - A measurement of disk
storage capacity. One gigabyte is one thousand megabytes
or 1,000,000,000 characters of storage space.
Glossy Paper - Coated paper with a
shiny, relatively hard surface. Glossy paper is used
to print photographs and other graphic material because
the glossy surface accepts sharper printed images.
Goldenrod Paper - Specially coated
masking paper in yellow or orange used by strippers
to assemble and position negatives for exposure on plates.
Gradation - The relationship of the
tonal values of an image to its intermediate films and
reproduction as well as magnetic or optical representation.
It may also refer to the tonal values within the picture.
Grain - The direction in which most
fibers are aligned.
Grammage - The metric basis weight
of paper. Weight is expressed in grams per square meter.
Graphic Arts - The visual reproduction
of type and images by any of the several printing processes.
Graphic Communications - Allied industries,
including printing, publishing, advertising and design,
that participate in the production and dissemination
of text and images by printed or electronic means.
Gravure - The process of printing
from cylinders that contain cells that hold the ink
for transfer to the substrate. In gravure color printing,
each succeeding color is printed on a dry color, rather
than one still wet as in letterpress and offset lithography.
Gray Balance - The proper amount of
cyan, magenta and yellow printing to produce a gray
scale with no apparent dominant hue.
Gray Component Replacement (GCR) -
A color separation process that uses the black printer
for the neutral gray portion of any color. Instead of
mixing cyan, magenta and yellow to produce those grays,
they are replaced with black ink. GCR deepens the shadows
in an image that lacks depth. GCR completely replaces
the grays with process black, unlike UCR which reduces
process colors in the neutral grays and adds black.
Grayscale - An image which is in shades
of gray, not black and white or converted to black and
Gray Stabilization - Ability to maintain
neutral gray balance during a color reproduction. The
use of GCR helps to stabilize neutrals.
Grindoff - The approximately 1/8 inch
(3mm) that is removed along the spine of gathered signatures
before perfect binding.
Gripper Edge - The leading edge of
a sheet which is held by the grippers.
Gripper Margin - The unprintable area
of the paper where it is gripped as it passes through
a printing press. Usually measures a half inch or less.
Grippers - Metal fingers that clamp
onto the paper and control its flow as it passes through
Gutter - The inside margin of a bound
Hairline Register - Register within
plus or minus one-half row of dots.
Halftone - An image composed of tiny
dots whose variations in size create the illusion of
variations in tone. Traditionally, a halftone screen
was used to convert a continuous tone image into a halftone;
such screening is currently done electronically.
Halftone-based Digital Proofing -
Producing a proof with reliable color and halftone pattern
directly from a digital file, usually by electronic
process, without producing a set of film negatives.
Hard Copy - A printed paper copy of
output in readable form. It is also a transparency film
or photograph of an image displayed on the monitor.
Hard Dots - Second generation dots
or laser-generated dots that have hard edges without
Hard Proof - A color proof made on
a substrate from production films or on a substrate
directly from the stored pixel data. The latter is usually
referred to as a digital hard proof, and a video proof
as a digital soft proof.
Hazard Communication Standard - An
OSHA regulation that requires chemical manufacturers,
suppliers and importers to assess the hazards of the
chemicals that they make, supply or import, and to inform
employers, customers and workers of these hazards through
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
Head - The top of a page or book.
Heatset - Web printing process whereby
non-absorbent paper goes through the press and the ink
is dried by heat.
Hickey - Spot on a printed sheet usually
due to dust, lint or bits of paper.
Highlight - The lightest area of a
photograph that has the smallest or fewest dots when
made into a halftone.
HLS/HSV - Abbreviations for hue, lightness
and saturation and hue, saturation and value. These
are different names for the same color-control options
found in most desktop software.
Holdout - A property of coated paper
with low ink absorption which allows ink to set on the
surface with high gloss. Too much holdout can cause
ink to rub off or mark the next sheet.
Hot Spot - Printing defect caused
when a piece of dirt or an air bubble caused incomplete
drawdown during contact platemaking, leaving an area
of weak ink coverage or visible dot gain.
House Sheet - Paper kept in stock
by a printer and suitable for a wide variety of printing
HTML - Hypertext Markup Language is
used to structure text and multimedia documents and
to set up hypertext links between documents, used extensively
on the World Wide Web.
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
is used to request and transmit files, especially Web
pages and Web page components, over the Internet or
other computer network.
Hue - The attribute of color that
designates its dominant wave length and distinguishes
it from other colors.
Hypertext - A computer-based text
retrieval system that enables a user to access particular
locations in Web pages or other electronic documents
by clicking on links within specific Web pages or documents.
Icon - In a computer system, a picture
or drawing, such as a paint brush or trash can that
represents a file or function. Clicking the mouse on
the icon activates the procedure or opens the file.
Illustration Software - Software used
to generate vector-based images.
Image - The digitized representation
of a graphic element (photograph, painting, film) bitmapped
in computer memory for display on a video monitor for
output in paper or film form.
Image Area - On a lithographic printing
plate, the area that has been specially treated to receive
ink and repel water.
Image Capture - The process of converting
photographs or other artwork into digital data so that
they can be used in computer-based layouts.
Image Carrier - The device on a printing
press that carries an inked image either to an intermediate
rubber blanket or directly to the paper or other printing
substrate. A direct-printing letterpress form, a lithographic
plate, a gravure cylinder and a screen used in screen
printing are examples of image carriers.
Image Editing Software - Software
programs used for working with pixel-based images to
refine, enhance and manipulate them, as well as to create
Image to Plate on Press - Technology
that images one or more plates in position on press
for color reproduction.
Imagesetter - A high-resolution laser
output device that writes data on photosensitive paper
or film. The data is processed by a RIP and can record
halftones and line images as well as type.
Imposition - Laying out pages in a
press form so that when the pages are printed and folded
they will be in proper order.
Impression - One sheet passing once
through the press.
Impression Cylinder - The hard metal
cylinder that presses the paper against the inked blanket
cylinder, transferring the inked image to the substrate.
The impression cylinder on most sheetfed presses uses
paper grippers to hold the sheet through its rotation.
Imprinting - To print new copy on
a previously printed sheet, such as imprinting an employee’s
name on business cards.
Infeed - (1) The section of a sheetfed
press where the sheet is transferred from the registering
devices of the feedboard to the first impression cylinder.
(2) The set of rollers controlling web tension ahead
of the first unit on a web press.
In-line - Components of a system arranged
in a logical production sequence and in such a way that
materials are automatically fed to the next component.
An example would be a coating tower on a press to apply
the lacquer or UV coating on the same pass as the color.
Indirect Screen - The process of first
separating a photo or artwork into the four process
colors by creating continuous tones. The dots are then
added using an additional process.
Ink - A printing ink is a dispersion
of a colored solid (pigment) in a liquid, specially
formulated to reproduce an image on a substrate.
Ink Balance - Relationship of the
densities and dot gain of process inks to each other
and to a standard density of neutral gray.
Inking System - The section of a lithographic
press that controls the distribution of ink to the plate.
Ink Jet - A method of printing images
using jets that squirt minuscule drops of ink onto a
variety of surfaces.
Inplant - A department or division
of a company that usually does printing for only that
Insert - A printed piece prepared
for insertion into a publication or another printed
Intaglio - Method of printing in which
the image is etched below the non-printing surface.
Gravure and engraving are the most common forms.
Intensity - The measurement of color
from dull to brilliant.
Internet - The " official"
name for an international network of computer networks
linked to provide and share information and resources
about a seemingly limitless number of topics.
Intranet - A private network within
an organization (always lower case). Firewalls often
keep Internet traffic off an intranet.
Interpolation - In the image manipulation
context, this is the increase of image resolution by
the addition of new pixels throughout the image, the
colors of which are based on neighboring pixels.
IP - Internet Protocol is the language
that allows computers to communicate over the Internet,
defining how data is cut up into packets and addressed
in order to reach its destination.
IP Address - A unique, numerical address
that identifies network elements in a TCP/IP network
such as the Internet.
ISDN - Integrated Services Digital
Network is a set of digital telecommunications standards
that transmit voice, video, and data over standard phone
lines. Not nearly as fast as DSL or cable modems.
ISO - International Standards Organization.
ISP - Internet Service Provider.
Java - A trademark used for a programming
language designed to develop applications, especially
ones for the Internet, that can operate on different
quicker and simpler language for enhancing Web pages
Job Specifications - A detailed description
of the requirements of a print job.
Job Ticket - Form used by service
bureaus, separators and printers to specify the production
schedule of a job and the materials needed.
Jog - To align the edges of a pile
of paper by hitting or shaking against a flat surface.
JPEG - A standardized image compression
mechanism. One of the two most common types of images
used on the World Wide Web, the other being GIF. JPEG
is named after the Joint Photographic Experts Group,
the original name of the committee that wrote the standard.
The shorter JPG (without the E) extension/version is
usually used only in association with PC platform file.
Justified - When type is justified,
both margins (left and right) are even and straight.
K - Abbreviation for black in four-color
Kelvin - A unit of measure used to
describe the color temperature of a light source, such
as the 5000K standard viewing conditions.
Kerning - The adjustment of space
between two consecutive letters or characters.
Key Plate - Negative or plate that
prints the most detail (usually black) and to which
other plates are aligned.
Keyline - A guide to a printing job.
All the key elements such as type or illustrations are
pasted down (usually with wax) to indicate size and
position on artwork board or poster board.
Kilobyte - K, Kb or KB. A unit of
measuring digital information which equals 1,024 bytes.
Kiss Cut - To die cut the top layer
but not the backing of self-adhesive paper.
Kiss Impression - Lightest possible
impression that will transfer ink to a substrate.
Knife - In folding machines, the three
or four blades at different levels and at right angles
to each other that force the paper between the folding
rollers. The sheet of paper is pushed from one knife
folding mechanism to the other until the desired number
of folds have been made.
Knock Out - To clear an area of absolutely
every printing dot; or to outline an image and drop
out all dots surrounding it.
Kraft Paper - Strong brown paper made
with unbleached wood pulp and used for grocery bags,
envelopes and wrapping paper.
Lacquer - A clear resin/solvent coating,
usually glossy, applied to a printed sheet for protection
Laminate - To bond a plastic film
by heat and pressure to a printed sheet for protection
LAN - Workstations and personal computers
in an office are commonly connected to each other with
a LAN (Local Area Network); this allows them to send/receive
files and/or have access to the files and data. Each
computer connected to a LAN is called a node.
Lap Register - Register where ink
colors overlap slightly.
Large-format Imagesetter - In-house
equipment to output computer files, typically full impositions,
to strippable films 23" x 35" or larger.
Layout - A drawing that gives the
general appearance of the finished piece and usually
indicates the relationship between illustrations and
LCD - The primitive, two-tone screen
of a digital watch, a pager, or a vintage computer is
a liquid crystal display.
Leading - (ledd-ing) The linespace,
or white space, between lines of copy measured in points.
Leaf - One sheet of paper in a publication.
Each side of a leaf is one page.
Letterpress - A method of printing
where the wrong-reading raised surface of a printing
plate is inked and impressed directly onto the paper.
There are four types of letterpress presses; platen,
flatbed cylinder, rotary and belt.
Line Art - Artwork which is only black
and white, without any shades of gray.
Line Copy - High contrast images or
type without shading which do not require halftone screening.
Lines per inch (LPI) - A specification
that shows how many lines of printed data appear in
each inch of paper.
Lithography - Method of printing using
plates whose image areas attract ink and whose non-image
areas repel ink. The images are first printed onto a
rubber blanket and then offset to paper.
Live Matter - The vital parts or elements
of a printed piece which must not be trimmed off.
Lossy - Image compression that functions
by removing minor tonal and/or color variations, causing
visible loss of detail at high compression ratios.
Loupe - Lens built into a small stand.
Used to inspect copy, film, proofs, plates and printing.
M - The abbreviation for magenta in
the four-color process. Also the abbreviation for "
Magenta - One of the three subtractive
primary colors of process printing. It is commonly called
" process red."
Makegood - The rerun of an ad or printed
piece by a publisher or printer because of their error.
Makeready - The process of setting
up and adjusting a printing press for a particular ink,
paper and set of printing conditions prior to a press
run. Also, the paper used during these adjustments.
Margin - The blank space around the
image area of a page, also referred to as a gutter.
Marks - Guides; lines, crosses or
other targets used for registering plates, specifying
trim, fold, and bleeds.
Mask - An opaque overlay placed over
any part of a photo or separation negative that should
not be exposed to light.
Master - To etch pits (tracks) into
the Glass Master (acts like a negative) from which a
CD-ROM " stamper" is made.
Master Page - A non-printing page
containing elements which are repeated on each page
of a document, such as header, footer, page number etc.;
ensures consistent design.
Mastering/pressing CD-ROMs - Preparation
of compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM) discs from
customer-supplied materials as alternative or value-added
Match Color - In printing, the duplication
of a specified color by using either multiple process
colors or special flat colors. Match colors may be defined
by supplied samples or by numbers from color matching
Matchprint™ - 3M’s negative
or positive single sheet proofing system which simulates
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
- A product specification form used to record information
about the hazardous chemicals and other health and physical
hazards employees face in an industrial workplace, along
with guidelines covering exposure limits and other precautions.
Employers are required to compile and maintain files
of this information under the OSHA Hazard Communication
Standard set forth by the U.S. federal government.
Matte - Surface finish of a substrate
that is not shiny like a gloss.
Mechanical - Complete pages, with
text, line art and crop marks in position, ready to
be photographed or output to film.
Mechanical Binding - Clasping individual
sheets together with plastic, small wire, or metal rings.
Two examples are three-ring binding and spiral binding.
Megabyte - Mb or MB. A unit of measure
for digital data which is 1,024 kilobytes or 1,048,576
Metameric Colors - Colors that can
change their perceived hue depending on the different
Metric System - A decimal system adopted
by most countries for solid, liquid and distance measurements.
Midtone - The tonal values of an image
that fall midway between the highlight and shadow dots.
Misregister - Printed images that
are incorrectly positioned, either in reference to each
other or to the sheet’s edges.
Modeling - The apparent detail in
a picture indicating that the objects are three dimensional;
having surface texture or relief such as the ripple
on an orange peel or the texture of a woven fabric.
Moire - Objectionable patterns that
appear at regular frequencies when two or more screen
patterns are placed over one another. May be caused
by misalignment, incorrect screen angles, slipping or
Monochrome - Single-colored. An image
or medium displaying only black-and-white or grayscale
information. Grayscale information displayed in one
color is also monochrome.
Mottle - The result of uneven ink
absorption or poorly formed paper surfaces, this spotty
variation in color or gloss appears most often in large
solid or tint areas.
Mount - To fasten the plate or blanket
to an offset press.
Moveable Type - The individual metal
or wooden type characters that are taken from the typecase,
arranged to form words and sentences, and then returned
to the case for reuse later.
MP3 - A digital audio file format
with CD quality that lets Internet users download songs
to a PC or to a portable player.
Negative - The film image of a completed
page from which plates will be burned. The light and
dark parts of the image are tonally revised from the
Neutral Gray - Any level of gray from
white to black with no apparent color cast or hue.
Noise - In the scanning context, this
refers to random, incorrectly read pixel values normally
due to electrical interference or device instability.
In the image context, this refers to a patterning that
can be applied to an image, often used to soften a gradient
or provide a special effect.
Non-heatset - Web printing process
whereby porous paper goes through the press and the
ink dries naturally.
Non-image Area - The portion of a
lithographic printing plate that is treated to accept
water and repel ink when the plate is on the press.
Only the ink-receptive areas will print an image.
Non-impact Printing - A printing device
that creates letters or images on a substrate without
striking it. Large, high-speed and ordinary office photocopiers
as well as laser and ink-jet printers are some examples.
Non-lossy - Image compression without
loss of quality.
Non-reproducible Colors - Certain
colors in nature and photography cannot be reproduced
using process inks. An example of non-reproducible color
is a very dark, deep, rich, wine red.
Oblong - A booklet or catalog bound
along the shorter dimension.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
- A federal law enacted in 1970 to protect workers from
industrial hazards. OSHA inspectors may appear unannounced
or at the request of an employee to examine any plant
for violations of the safety and health standards set
forth by the act.
OCR - Optical Character Recognition.
A computer software application that reads graphical
material, such as a scanned document, and converts the
graphical image into text that can be input to a word
processor or text editor.
OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer, a
misleading term for a company that has a special relationship
with computer producers. OEMs buy computers in bulk
and customize them for a particular application. They
then sell the customized computer under their own name.
The term is really a misnomer because OEMs are not the
original manufacturers, they are the customizers.
Off-line - Production operations conducted
out-of-process rather than in-line (on-press), such
as die-cutting or the application of special coatings
via dedicated equipment.
Off-press Proof - A color proof that
is similar in appearance to the finished printed product
but is made without the aid of a printing press.
Offset Printing - Usually refers to
offset lithography. The image prints by transferring
ink from a flat plate or cylinder to a rubber blanket
that deposits the ink onto the substrate instead of
directly from plate to paper.
Offset Spray - A dry spray of powdered
starch at delivery end of press used to separate freshly
printed sheets with a fine layer of particles, thus
allowing the ink to dry and avoiding undesirable offsetting.
Offsetting - A print quality problem
where wet ink from a freshly printed sheet is transferred
to the sheet above or below it in the delivery pile.
Also called offset, or setoff.
Online - Being connected to the Internet.
One-up - Having only one image of
each item (see two-up).
Opacity - Characteristic of paper
or other substrate that prevents print on one side from
showing through to the other side. Also, the characteristic
of ink that prevents the substrate from showing through.
Opaque - To paint out the portions
of a negative that are not wanted on the plate.
OpenType Fonts - Standard fonts, based
on the Microsoft TrueType fonts, that contain screen
and printer fonts in a set.
OPI - Open Prepress Interface. The
automatic updating of low-resolution files to high-resolution
files at final RIP.
Optical Centering - Positioning material
a little above center when it is desired to make it
appear centered with respect to top and bottom.
Optical Gain - An effect caused by
printing on a rough-surfaced paper in which halftone
dots appear larger than actual size, resulting in image
Optical Resolution - In the scanning
context, this refers to the number of truly separate
readings taken from an original within a given distance,
as opposed to the subsequent increase in resolution
(but not detail) created by software interpolation.
Orphan - In type, a single line of
type sitting alone at the bottom of a page; usually
the first line of a new paragraph that continues in
the next column or page. Should be avoided.
Orthochromatic - A term applied to
photographic materials that are sensitive to green,
blue and ultraviolet light.
Outline Halftone - A photo reproduction
in which the background around the primary subject has
Output - Processed optical or electronic
data transferred to another device such as a secondary
storage unit, a laser printer, an electronic manipulation
station, or an analog or digital proofing device.
Overlay - A tissue over the base keyline
for writing corrections and instructions such as indicating
Overlay Proof - Color proof which
simulates the appearance of the printed piece. It consists
of sheets of film dyed or pigmented with the color and
image of each plate to be used in the print run. The
film is stacked so it is in register and in the order
the inks will be printed.
Overprint - To print over an area
that has previously been printed.
Overrun - Copies printed and/or bound
in excess of the specified quantity.
Oxidation - Combining oxygen with
the drying oil in a printing ink to promote a slow chemical
reaction that produces a dry ink film.
Packing - Paper used to underlay the
image or impression cylinder in letterpress or the plate
or blanket in lithography to get the proper squeeze
and pressure for printing.
Page - One side of a leaf in a publication.
Page Layout Software - Computer programs
used to assemble type and images into page form.
Page Makeup - The assembly of all
elements to make up a page.
Pagination - Numbering pages in order.
Also, the process of performing page makeup on a computer.
Palette - The collection of colors
or shades available or used in a project, graphic system
Panchromatic - Film that is sensitive
to all colors of light.
Panel - One page of a brochure on
one side of the paper. A letter folded sheet has six
Paper Grain - The alignment of fibers
along the direction of flow in paper making. In grain-long
paper, fibers run parallel to the sheet's length, while
grain-short follows the width. Generally, registration
is easier to control, folds are cleaner, and binding
stronger when running with the grain.
Parallel Fold - A folding succession
in which all folds are made parallel with each other.
Partition - On a hard drive, logical
segments that present a large disk to the OS as separate
physical drives. Partitioning lets you store different
types of data on separate partitions, or to create a
disk that can boot into multiple operating systems.
Paste-up - Placing graphics and text
in a mechanical either manually or electronically.
PDF - Portable document format. A
computer file format that preserves a printed or electronic
document’s original layout, type fonts and graphics
as one unit for electronic transfer and viewing. The
recipient uses compatible " reader" software
to access and even print the PDF file.
Perfect Binding - Signatures that
are folded and collated on top of one another, as opposed
to saddle-stitch binding in which the signatures are
folded inside one another.
Perfecting Press - Press that prints
on both sides of the paper during a single pass.
Perforating - Punching a row of small
hole or incisions into or through a sheet of paper to
permit part of it to be detached; to guide in folding;
to allow air to escape from signatures; or to prevent
wrinkling when folding heavy papers.
Photomechanical Process - The image
reproduction process that involves photosensensitive
imaging products (paper, film, proofing materials, and
plates) that react to light. During the photomechanical
process these materials are images using a contacting
Photostat - Brand name for a diffusion
transfer process used to make positive paper prints
of line copy and halftones.
Phototypesetting - Setting type directly
on film or photosensitive paper for reproduction.
Pica - Unit of measure commonly used
in typesetting and design. A pica is one-sixth of an
Picking - The lifting of the paper
surface during printing, leaving unprinted spots in
image areas. This occurs when the pulling force (tack)
of the ink is greater than the surface strength of the
Pickup Art - Artwork from a previous
job incorporated into a current job.
PICT/PICT2 - A common format for defining
images and drawings on the Macintosh platform. PICT
2 supports 24-bit color.
Pigment - The fine, solid particles
used to give color, transparency or opacity to ink.
Piling - The building up or caking
of ink on rollers, plates or blankets which will not
Pinholes - Tiny areas that are not
covered by ink.
Pixel - Abbreviation for picture element.
The separate elements of a bitmapped image on a video
Pixel Swopping - A CEPS technique
to exchange pixels from one area of a picture for pixels
in another area. Example: a window may be removed from
a brick building if one area of the brick wall is placed
in that area of the picture. Using this technique, blemishes
can be removed and objects can be added to the reproduction.
Plate - Piece of paper, metal, plastic
or rubber carrying an image to be reproduced using a
Plate Cylinder - In lithography, the
cylinder that holds the printing plate tightly and in
register on press. It places the plate in contact with
the dampening rollers that wet the nonimage area and
the inking rollers that ink the image area, then transfers
the inked image to the blanket, which is held on its
Platemaking - Preparing a printing
plate or other image carrier so that it is ready for
Platesetters - A device that images
printing plates directly from digital image data; no
film or any analog processes are required.
PMS - Acronym for Pantone Matching
System, a set of preprinted color patches used to choose
and communicate color so exact matches can be obtained.
Point - Unit of measurement commonly
used to specify type sizes. There are 12 points in a
pica and 72 points in an inch.
POP - Point of Presence, terminology
for local access to a network or telecom service. Also
point of purchase.
Porosity - The property of paper that
allows the permeation of air, an important factor in
Position Proof - A color proof that
is made to verify that all the elements of the reproduction
(text, graphics and pictures) are in the correct position
and are in register with each other.
Positive - A reproduction which is
exactly like the original.
Post Bind - To bind using a screw
and post inserted though a hole in a pile of loose sheets.
Postpress - The final stages in the
printing process in which printed sheets are transformed
into saleable products, including binding, finishing
PostScript - A printer or display
language that defines program or application output.
Pre-flight - Procedures used by a
printing company to make sure that a customer’s
digital files are correctly prepared for production.
Pre-flight Customer Files - To preliminarily
evaluate customer supplied electronic files for completeness,
compatibility, and composition.
Premakeready - The stage prior to
printing in which all production specs are examined,
necessary materials are brought to the press, and materials
are checked for damage.
Pre-master - To format a data file
into the ISO 9660 format (which is the International
Standard for CD-ROM), before the mastering process.
The data file is then provided to the party responsible
for the mastering process (see master).
Prepress - Camera work, color separating,
stripping, platemaking and other functions performed
by the printer, separator or service bureau prior to
the actual printing.
Prepress Proof - Any color proof made
using ink jet, toner, dyes or overlays.
Press Check - When a customer is at
the printing press as the press begins to print his
or her job, in order to approve the job as it is printed.
A press check can last a few minutes or several days,
depending on the size of the job.
Press Proof - A proof made on press
using the ink and paper specified for the job.
Press Run - The actual running of
the press to print the job following makeready. Also,
the number of copies of a publication printed.
Presswork - All operations performed
on or by a printing press that lead to the transfer
of inked images from the image carrier to the paper
or other substrate.
Price Break - Quantity at which unit
cost of paper or printing drops.
Primary Colors - The colorants of
a system used to reproduce the colors for the entire
reproduction. Cyan, magenta and yellow are subtractive
primary colors while red, green and blue are additive
Printer’s Spread - Two facing
pages in the order they will be printed, e.g. pages
1 and 4 and also 2 and 3 will be keylined together for
a four-page brochure.
Print-on-Demand - The capability to
print documents right at the time they are required
by patrons and consumers, rather than following traditional
norms of printing documents in advance of need and coping
with the need to distribute and inventory printed documents
in anticipation of demand.
Print Quality - The degree to which
the appearance and other properties of a print job approach
the desired result.
Printing - Any process that transfers
to paper or another substrate an image from an original
such as film, electronic memory, stencil, die or plate.
Printing Plates - A thin metal, plastic
or paper sheet that serves as the image carrier in many
Printing Unit - The sections on printing
presses that house the components for reproducing an
image on the substrate. In lithography, a printing unit
includes the inking and dampening systems and the plate,
blanket and impression cylinders.
Process Camera (also called graphic arts camera)
- A camera used to photograph line or halftone
copy or to produce color separation negatives for printing
on another production process.
Process Colors - The three colors
(cyan, magenta and yellow) plus black that are used
in full-color printing.
Process Color Separation - A consequence
of the offset lithographic process. In order to print
full-color images, it is necessary to prepare four separate
files for each of the process colors (cyan, magenta,
yellow and black). When the colors are overprinted,
they combine to render a wide range of color. CMYK produces
the widest range of color with the fewest inks when
Process Control - A system using feedback
to monitor and manage a certain procedure; input and
output data are tabulated according to specific formulas
and compared with certain standards and limits; the
process is then adjusted as necessary.
Process Inks - The ink colors of cyan,
magenta and yellow used to print color reproductions.
Process Photography - (1) Creating
line and halftone images for photomechanical reproduction.
(2) The equipment, materials and methods used in preparing
color-separated printing forms for color reproduction.
Production Automation - Use of a centralized
computer to monitor costing, workflow, job status, pressroom
efficiency, billing, etc.
Production Workflow - A sequence of
production steps required to produce any printed item.
Profile - The color characteristics
of an input or output device, used by a Color Management
System to ensure color fidelity.
Progressive Proof - A set of proofs
made with ink on paper from the actual plates to show
the sequence of printing and the result after each additional
color is applied. Also called progs.
Proof - A prototype of an image that
is supposed to show how it will appear when printed
on the press.
Proportion Scale - Round device used
to calculate percentage that an original image must
be reduced or enlarged to yield a specific reproduction
Quadratone - A halftone image created
by overprinting four different halftone screens of the
same image with different tonal values.
Quads - Refers to the four separated
films; cyan, magenta, yellow and black.
Quality Control - The day-to-day operational
techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements
for quality, such as intermediate and final product
inspections, testing incoming materials and calibrating
instruments used to verify product quality.
Quartertone - Those dot percentages
that are near the 25 percent printing dot size.
Quarto - Sheet folded twice, making
pages one-fourth the size of the original sheet. A quarto
makes an 8-page signature.
Quotation - Price offered by a printer
to produce a specific job.
QWERTY - The standard keyboard, named
after the first six letters in the upper row.
Ragged - Type that is not justified
on the right or left side.
Rag Paper - Paper containing a minimum
of 25% rag or cotton fiber pulp.
RAID - Redundant Array of Independent
Disks. A multidisk storage device that provides high-speed
data access plus fault tolerance. Especially popular
among video, sound, and other multimedia producers on
Rainbow™ - 3M’s digital,
high resolution, thermal dye sublimation, desktop color
Rainbow Fountain - Technique of putting
ink colors next to each other in the same ink fountain
and oscillating the ink rollers to make the colors merge
where they touch, producing a rainbow effect.
RAM - Random Access Memory is hardware
inside your computer that retains memory on a short-term
basis. This information is stored temporarily while
you’re working on it.
Random Proof - A color proof consisting
of many images ganged on one substrate and randomly
positioned with no relation to the final page imposition.
This is a cost-effective way to verify the correctness
of completed scans prior to further stripping and color
correction work. Also called scatter proof.
Raster - To convert mathematical and
digital information into a series of dots by an imagesetter
or recorder as digital data that will be used for output.
RC Paper - The photosensitive resin-coated
paper generally used to record the output of typesetters
Reader’s Spread - Keylines of
two facing pages in correct numerical order, e.g., pages
2 and 3.
Ream - 500 sheets of printing paper.
Stacks and skids of paper often include slips of paper
(ream markers) marking the division of the stack into
Recto Page - The right-hand or odd-numbered
page of an open book or spread.
Recycled Paper - New paper made entirely
or in part from old paper.
Reflection Copy - Any opaque color
artwork submitted for reproduction such as photos, sketches
Reflective Copy - Any painting, artwork
or photograph (not transparencies) that reflects light
off its surface.
Register - The fitting of two or more
printing images on the same paper in exact alignment
with each other.
Register Marks - Crosses or other
targets applied to original copy prior to photography.
Used for positioning films in register, or for register
of two or more colors in process printing.
Registration - The correct positioning
of one color over another during the printing process.
Relief Printing - Printing method
whose image carriers are surfaces with two levels having
inked areas higher than non-inked areas. Types include
block printing, flexography and letterpress.
Remote proofing - Digital transmission
of a proof to a remote office or customer location for
output and evaluation at the remote site.
Repeatability - The precision with
which a device can position an image, usually measured
in microns. For example, a capstan imagesetter has low
repeatability compared with a drum imagesetter which
is more accurate in its operation.
Replicate - In the manufacturing of
a CD-ROM, to mold the actual disc by injecting molten
polycarbonate into the mold cavity (stamper), then quickly
cool the plastic to harden it, a process which takes
less than 15 seconds. After replication of the disc,
art is printed onto the non-data side of the disc via
silk-screen or offset printing.
Reprint - An ad which is printed and
then sent to a magazine for insertion. Also refers to
a reprint of ads supplied by the publication before
the publication is issued.
Resolution - Sharpness of an image.
Also quantification of laser print quality using number
of dots per inch.
Retouch - To correct flaws in an image
or make design changes.
Reverse - Type, graphic or illustration
produced by printing ink around its outline, thus allowing
the underlying color or paper to show through and form
the image. The image " reverses out" of the
ink color. Also called knock out or liftout.
RGB - Red, green and blue. The additive
primaries which are used in video monitors.
Right-angle Fold - A folding succession
in which each succeeding fold is made at right angles
to the preceding one.
Right Reading - Copy that reads correctly
in the language in which it is written. Also describes
a photo whose orientation looks like the original image.
RIP - Abbreviation for raster image
processing, a hardware and/or software system that translates
page description command into bitmaps for output to
a laser printer or imagesetter.
ROM - Read-Only Memory, a storage
device whose contents cannot be altered.
Rosette Pattern - The desirable minute
circle of dots that is formed when two or more process
color screens are overprinted at their appropriate angle,
screen ruling and dot shape.
Rotogravure - A printing process that
uses a cylinder as an image carrier. Image areas are
etched below nonimage area in the form of tiny sunken
cells. The cylinder is immersed in ink, and the excess
ink is scraped off by a blade. When the substrate contacts
the printing cylinder, ink transfers, forming the image.
RRED - Right reading, emulsion side
Rub Proof - Ink that has reached its
maximum dryness and does not mar with normal abrasion.
Rubylith - A red acetate masking film
used in stripping to make an opening.
Rule - A straight line of any thickness
or a line used as a graphic element to separate or organize
Run Around - Type that is made to
fit around a picture of art.
Run of Paper (ROP) - Printing full
color in newspaper but using the same paper and press
as the balance of the newspaper.
Saddle-sewn - A form of binding that
stitches thread through the gutter fold of a publication.
Saddle-stitched - A form of binding
that uses staple-shaped wires through the gutter fold;
also called saddle-wired.
Safelight - A lamp for use in the
darkroom that gives light of a color that will not affect
the photographic material within a reasonable time.
Different photographic materials require different safelight
Sans Serif Type - Any type style that
does not have cross strokes on the ends of the letters.
Saturation - The measurement of the
amount of color pigment in a color. Also referred to
Scale - Calculate the amount a photo
or artwork is to be reduced or enlarged.
Scanner - Electronic device used to
digitize an image.
Scatter Proof - Another name for a
Score - To compress paper along a
straight line so it folds more easily and accurately.
Screen - Plastic sheets that have
cross-hatched lines. These screens are placed between
the camera and the original photo or continuous tones
to break the image into dots to create a halftone image.
Screen Angles - Angles at which the
halftone screens are placed with relation to one another
to avoid undesirable moire pattern. The most common
angles are black 45°, magenta 75°, yellow 90°
and cyan 105°.
Screen Frequency - The number of rows
(lines) and columns of dots per inch or centimeter of
a halftone screen.
Screen Printing - Method of printing
by using a squeegee to force ink through an assembly
of mesh fabric and a stencil.
Screen Ruling - Sometimes confused
with resolution, screen ruling is the number of printing
dots per millimeter or per inch on the exposed film.
The screen ruling is a critical factor in determining
the resolution need. The finer the screen ruling, the
higher the resolution needs to be, due to the amount
of information required to generate the printing dots.
Screen Tint - A halftone screen pattern
of all the same size dots that creates an even tone.
SCSI - Small Computer System Interface,
allows peripherals to communicate with a computer’s
Scuffing - Undesirable print abrasions
caused by surface wear or rough handling. Particularly
problematic in packaging, scuffing may be minimized
with scuff-proof inks, varnishes, and other coatings.
Search Engines - These engines help
Internet surfers target information by keyword or concept.
Secondary Colors - Colors created
by combining two primary colorants of a color system.
Example: red would be the secondary color produced with
magenta and yellow. Also referred to as overprint colors.
Second Pass - The extra passage of
a sheet through the press for additional color impressions
or coating applications.
Selective Binding - Placing signatures
or inserts in magazines and catalogs according to demographic
or geographic guidelines.
Self Cover - A cover made from the
same paper as the inside text pages.
Separation - The process of getting
different colors on different plates/film.
Serif Type - Any type style that has
cross strokes on the ends of the letters.
Serigraphics Printing - Printing method
whose image carriers are woven fabric, plastic or metal
that allows ink to pass through some portions and blocks
ink from passing through other portions. Types include
screen and mimeograph.
Service Bureau - A business that provides
manipulation and output of digital files, usually to
a PostScript imagesetter.
Set-off - Ink from a printed sheet
rubs off or marks the next sheet as it is being delivered.
Also called offset.
Shadow - The darkest areas of an image
or photograph; represented as the largest dots in a
Sharpen - To decrease in color strength,
as when halftone dots become smaller. Opposite of dot
Sheeter - A device on a printing press
that converts continuous forms into smaller sheets.
Sheetfed Press - A printing press
that feeds and prints on individual sheets of paper
(or another substrate), rather than a continuous paper
roll or web.
Sheetwise - To print one side of a
sheet of paper with one form or plate, then turn the
sheet over and print the other side with another form
using the same gripper and side guide. This method is
used for printing signatures.
Shingling - A technique used to compensate
for creep. The gutter margin on a page is gradually
narrowed from the outside pages to the middle pages
of the signature.
Show-through - The undesirable condition
in which the printing on the reverse side of a sheet
can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting
Shrink Wrap - Using heat to affix
a thin plastic material around printed and bound products
to prepare them for shipment.
Side Stitch - To bind by stapling
through all sheets along one edge.
Signature - A group of pages brought
together into proper sequential order and alignment
after it has been folded.
Signature Proof - Kodak’s proofing
system, negative/positive, on most stocks.
Silhouette Halftone - A halftone with
all of the background removed.
Silverprint - A proof that is made
of the negative film to ensure that all elements are
accurate and in correct position before the plate is
Sizing - Treatment of paper which
gives it resistance to the penetration of liquids (particularly
water) or vapors.
Skid (also pallet) - Wooden platform
that supports piles of paper during shipping and storage.
Skids usually accommodate from 2500 to 4000 pounds of
Slit - To cut printed sheets or webs
into two or more sections by means of cutting wheels
on a press or folder.
Slur - A smearing of ink that occurs
in printing when there isn’t enough pressure on
SMTP - The language computers must
speak to send and receive email on the Internet.
SNAP - Specifications for Nonheatset
Advertising Printing, a set of standards for color separations
and proofing developed for those printing with uncoated
paper and newsprint stock in the United States.
Soft Dot - Halftone dot with a weak
fringe density or halo surrounding a solid core.
Soft Proof - A proof that is viewed
on a color-calibrated video monitor as opposed to a
hard proof printed on paper.
Solid - Any area of the sheet receiving
100 percent ink coverage.
Solvent - A component of the vehicle
in printing inks that disperses the pigment and keeps
the solid binder liquid enough for use in the printing
Spam - Electronic junk mail.
Specs - Complete and precise written
description (or specifications) of features of a printing
job such as type size and leading, paper grade and quantity,
printing quality or binding method.
Spectrum - The series of color bands
formed when a ray of light is dispersed by refraction;
the rainbow-like band of colors resulting when a ray
of white light is passed through a prism.
Splice - The area where two paper
rolls are joined to form one continuous roll.
Spider - Search engine technology.
A simple program that scans the Web, crawling from link
to link in search of new sites and recording the URL’s.
Spine - The back of a bound book connecting
the two covers. Also called backbone.
Spiral Bind - To bind using a spiral
of continuous wire or plastic looped through holes.
Also called coil bind.
Splash - A " first" or "
front" page that you often see on some Web sites
usually containing a " click-through" logo
Split Run - Different images, such
as advertisements, printed or bound in different editions
of a publication. Also, two or more binding methods
used on the same print run.
Spooler - A device by which a computer
can store data and feed it gradually to an external
device, such as a printer, which is operating more slowly
than the computer.
Spot Color - Individual color or colors
that are utilized to highlight illustrations or type.
Spot color is frequently printed with non-process color
inks, although process inks can be used.
Spot Varnish - Varnish applied only
to certain portions of a sheet to highlight those areas.
Spread - Two facing pages. They can
be a reader’s spread or a printer’s spread.
Square Halftone - A halftone that
has four right-angle corners.
Stamping - Using a die and often colored
foil or gold leaf to press a design into a book cover,
a sheet of paper or another substrate. The die may be
used alone (in blank stamping) if no color or other
ornamentation is necessary. Special presses fitted with
heating devices can stamp designs into book covers.
Standard Viewing Condition - An area
surrounded by a neutral gray and illuminated by a light
source of 5000K both for viewing transparencies and
reflection prints. Large format transparencies should
be surrounded by approximately 2-4 inches or 5-10 centimeters
of white surround and should not be viewed with a dark
Stat - Short for photostat, a photographic
print of line copy or halftones.
Static Neutralizer - A device on a
printing press designed to remove static from the paper
and avoid ink set-off and trouble with feeding the paper.
Statistical Process Control (SPC)
- Method of understanding and managing production processes
by collecting numerical data about each step in the
process and all materials used in the production sequence,
including output; this data is then analyzed to locate
causes of variations.
Step-and-repeat - The procedure of
exposing an image repeatedly in different places on
the printing plate.
Stochastic Screening - A digital screening
process that converts images into very small dots (14-40
microns) of equal size and variable spacing.
Stock - The paper or other substrate
to be printed.
Storage - Nonvolatile devices, including
hard disk drives and floppy drives, used to store computer
information or programs.
Streaming Media - Web technologies
that let viewers hear and see audio and video data as
it arrives, rather than waiting for an entire file to
Strip - To assemble images on film
for platemaking. Stripping involves correcting flaws
in film, assembling pieces of film into flats and ensuring
that film and flats register correctly.
Stripping - The process of manually
creating composite films and fully imposed flats for
platemaking. Most of this work is now done electronically,
bypassing the traditional artisan.
Substrate - Any surface on which printing
Subtractive Color System - A means
of producing a color reproduction or image with combinations
of yellow, magenta and cyan colorants, which serve as
filters to " remove" colors from a white substrate.
Supercalender - A finishing device
consisting of alternate metal and resilient rollers
used to produce a smooth, thin sheet of paper.
Swatch - A small, printed solid used
for color matching or measurement. It represents what
an ink color might look like after it is printed.
SWOP - Abbreviation for the revised
Specifications for Web-Offset Publications; a set of
specifications for color separation films and color
proofing to insure the consistency of the printed color.
TAC - Total Area Coverage. Percentage
of ink in a file that a press can hold.
Tack - The amount of stickiness in
printing inks that makes them adhere to the substrate
while minimizing dot gain. Too much tack can cause surface
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol is the international language of the Internet.
This set of protocols makes e-mail and other services
possible among computers that don’t belong to
the same network.
Tear Sheet - Actual ad removed from
a publication and sent to the advertiser, often with
Template - A complete master, including
master pages and style sheets, created to ensure the
continuity of design elements throughout a document
or series of documents.
Terabyte - Tb or TB. Equal to approximately
one billion kilobytes and often used to measure optical
disk storage capacity.
Text - The body matter of a page or
book as distinguished from the heading and art.
Text Stock - Paper stock used for
the pages of reports, books, and other printing where
the stiffness of card stock is not required. Text stock
is described by pound weight determined by the weight
of 500 sheets that are 25 inches by 38 inches in size.
For example, 500 sheets of 80-lb. text stock cut 25
by 38 inches weigh 80 pounds.
Thermography - Method of printing
using colorless resin powder that takes on the color
of underlying ink.
Thumbnail Sketch - Crude, small layouts
sketched in pencil to develop the initial concept for
TIFF - Tagged Image File Format. A
graphics and page layout file format for desktop computers.
Used as an intermediary file format for both color and
black and white images. TIFF is used to transfer documents
between different applications and computer platforms.
Tile - A method used when a page is
too large to be output in its entirety by the output
device. The page is divided into pieces that allow for
overlap so that it can be reassembled as a whole.
Tint - A solid color reduced either
by screening or by adding white ink. Also, a halftone
of a specified dot percentage, but less than 100%.
Tissue Overlay - A thin, translucent
paper placed over artwork (mostly mechanicals) for protection
and used to indicate color breaks and corrections.
Tonal Compression - The reduction
of an original’s tonal range to a tonal range
achievable through the reproduction process.
Tonal Range - The difference between
the brightest and the darkest tone in a photograph or
offset lithographic print.
Tone - The character of a color, its
quality or lightness.
Toolbar - Onscreen bar that displays
various icons or formatting choices.
Tooth - A characteristic of paper,
a slightly rough finish, which permits it to take ink
Total Quality Management (TQM) - A
management approach to long-term success through customer
satisfaction; TQM is based on the participation of all
members of an organization to continuously improve processes,
products, services and the company culture.
Touch Plate - Adds a special color,
or accents a color within a specific image area, for
reaching optimal color match. Commonly used to achieve
Tracking - Adjustment of spacing between
characters and words.
Trade Shop - Service bureau, printer
or bindery working primarily for other graphic arts
professionals, not for the general public.
Traditional Color Angles - The screen
angles used most often in color separation, considered
to be optimal for reducing moire patterns-yellow at
0°, cyan at 15°, black at 45° and magenta
Transparency - Positive photographic
image on film allowing light to pass through.
Transparent Ink - A printing ink which
does not conceal the color beneath. Process inks are
transparent so that they will blend to form other colors.
Transpose - To exchange the position
of a letter, word or line with another letter, work
Trapping - A method of overlapping
adjoining colors or inks that helps minimize the possibility
of a fine white line appearing between two colors, caused
by misregistration of color negatives. Also, the ability
to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink.
Trim - To cut the excess paper from
the edges of a publication after it has been printed
Trim Marks - Marks on the outside
of a keyline to indicate where the piece is to be cut.
TrueType Fonts - Standard, scalable,
outline fonts used by Apple and Microsoft that can be
used for display or printing. TrueType standards enable
applications and the files they produce to work well
in a cross-platform environment and across applications.
Two-up - Having two images of each
item (see one-up).
Type 1 Fonts - Early PostScript fonts
that offered improved versatility over fixed-font technology.
Typeface - A distinctive shape and
design of type that makes a collection of letter recognizable.
Typefaces are identified by name such as Times Roman,
Helvetica, Palatino, and Century Schoolbook.
Typesetting - Composing type into
words and lines in accordance with the manuscript and
Typography - The art and craft of
creating and/or setting type professionally.
Uncoated Paper - Paper that has not
been coated with clay.
Undercolor Addition (UCA) - A technique
used to add cyan, magenta and yellow printing dots in
dark neutral areas of the reproduction to give them
Undercolor Removal (UCR) - The technique
of reducing the cyan, magenta and yellow content in
neutral areas of the reproduction and replacing them
with black ink so the reproduction will appear normal
but will use less ink.
Unit - One inking, plate and impression
station on a press. A four-color press has four units.
Up - In printing, two-up, three-up,
etc., refers to imposition of material to be printed
on a larger size sheet to take advantage of full press
URL - The Uniform Resource Locator
is the address of a page on the Web.
USM - Un-Sharp Masking. A process
used to sharpen images by exaggerating neighboring light
and dark pixels.
UV Coating - Liquid applied to a printed
sheet, then bonded and cured with ultraviolet light.
Vacuum Frame - A device that holds
film or plates in place by withdrawing air through small
holes in a rubber supporting surface.
Value - The degree in a color or gray
that varies from light to dark.
Varnish - A thin, protective liquid
coating applied to the printed sheet for protection
Vector - Mathematical descriptions
of images and their placement.
Vehicle - The liquid component of
a printing ink.
Velox - This is the brand name for
a screened print of a photo which is pasted on the keyline;
thus showing exactly how it will look when printed.
Verso Page - The left-hand or even-numbered
page of an open book or spread.
Vignette - An illustration in which
the background fades gradually away until it blends
into the unprinted paper.
Virgin Paper - Paper made exclusively
of new pulp from trees or cotton. No recycled materials
Visible Spectrum - That portion of
the electromagnetic spectrum to which the human eye
is sensitive; wavelengths of approximately 400 through
700 nanometers. Because of the characteristics of cone
sensing (color-reading mechanism of the retina), it
is generally agreed that humans detect only red, green,
and blue. All perceived colors are combinations of those
sensitivities (hue) in relation to the strength of the
transmitted or reflected light (brightness) and the
intensity of the light hitting the retina (saturation).
Ultraviolet wavelengths are shorter and infrared wavelengths
are longer than the sensitivity range of the eye and
are invisible as a result.
Washup - The process of cleaning the
rollers, form or place and fountain of a press with
solvents to remove ink as required after a day’s
run, or during a run for ink color changes.
Waterless Lithography Sheetfed - Water-free
offset lithographic capability on a sheetfed press that
allows ultrafine reproduction and improved, almost continuous-looking
Waterless Lithography Web - Water-free
offset lithographic capability on a web press that allows
ultrafine reproduction and improved, almost continuous-looking
Watermark - Translucent logo in paper
created during manufacture by slight embossing while
paper is still approximately 90 percent water.
Web - A roll of paper used in web
or rotary printing.
Web Press - A printing press that
prints on paper from a continuous roll and outputs it
onto another roll, as a folded signature or as cut sheets.
White Light - Theoretically, light
that emits all wavelengths of the visible spectrum at
uniform intensity. In reality, most light sources cannot
achieve such perfection.
Whois - A command to find the who
behind the .com, .org, or .net. the whois program lets
you access a database of registered domain names.
Widow - A single word in a line by
itself, ending a paragraph, or starting a page, frowned
upon in good typography.
Wire Side - The side of a sheet next
to the wire in paper manufacturing; opposite the felt
or top side.
With the Grain - Folding or feeding
paper into a press parallel to the grain of the paper.
Word Processor - A personal computer
and special software program or dedicated electronic
equipment used to create, store, retrieve and edit text.
Work and Tumble - To print one side
of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from gripper
to back using the same side guide and plate to print
the second side.
Work and Turn - To print one side
of a sheet of paper, then turn the sheet over from left
to right and print the second side. The same gripper
and plate are used for printing both sides.
Worm - Known primarily as a virus,
a worm is a computer program that can replicate itself.
It is also referred to as a program used by search engines
to locate and index information on the Web.
WORM - Write once/read many. It refers
to the permanent, unalterable nature of data in certain
kinds of storage media.
Wrong Reading - An image that is backwards
when compared to the original.
Xerography - An electrostatic nonimpact
printing process in which heat fuses dry ink toner particles
in electrically charged areas of the substrate, forming
a permanent image. The charged areas of the substrate
appear dark on the reproduction, while uncharged areas
X-Height - The height of lowercase
letters in a font (not including ascenders or descenders).
XML - eXtensible Markup Language is
designed especially for Web documents. It enables Web
authors and designers to create their own customized
tags to provide functionality not available with HTML.
Yellow - One of the three subtractive
primary colors used in process printing.
Zoom - An electronic function that
increases or reduces the magnification of the image
displayed on the video screen.